Amenhotep IV

Also known as: Akhenaten, Akhenaton, Echnaton, Amenophis IV
Dynasty XVIII
picture of Drawing of Amenhotep IV<br>from Denkmäler III 295
Amenhotep IV reigned for five years before changing his name to Akhenaten, keeping only the throne name of his original titulary. He is especially famed for introducing the worship of Aten above all other gods, sometimes described as monotheism, which it was not. His name in the Amarna letters is Nibhururiya, which is the Akkadian renditon of his throne name Neferkheperura.

Reign of Amenhotep IV
AE Chronology1353–1336
von Beckerath1355–1337
Shaw1352–1336
Dodson1360–1343
Malek1353–1337
Arnold1364–1348
Grimal1352–1338
Redford1372–1355
Manetho (Josephus)12y 5m
Manetho (Jerome)16 years
Highest attestationYear 17

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Amenhotep IV: Ka nakht qa shuty
Ka nakht qa shuty
 kꜢ-nḫt ḳꜢi-šwti
 The strong bull, high of plumes
E1:D44-q-A28-S9
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 110i
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 10:H1

Variants

Nebty name
Nebty name of Amenhotep IV: Wer nesyt em Ipet-sut
Wer nesyt em Ipet-sut
 wr-nsyt-m-ipt-swt
 Great of kingship in Karnak
wr:r-sw*t:n-i-i-m-i-p:t-st-t:Z2
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 110i
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 10:N1

Variants

Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Amenhotep IV: Wetjes khau em Iunu shemau
Wetjes khau em Iunu shemau
 wṯs-ḫꜤw-m-iwnw-šmꜤi
 Elevated of appearances in southern Heliopolis (Thebes)
U39-M40-xa:Z2-m-iwn-nw:O49-M27
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 110i
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 10:G1

Variants

Throne name
Throne name of Amenhotep IV: Nefer kheperu Ra, wa en Ra
Nefer kheperu Ra, wa en Ra
 nfr-ḫprw-rꜤ wꜤ-n-rꜤ
 The beautiful one of the manifestations of Ra, the unique one of Ra
C2A-nfr-xpr-Z2*ra:T21:n
Before name change
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 110d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 10:T2

Variants

Birth name
Birth name of Amenhotep IV: Amenhotep, netjer heqa Waset
Amenhotep, netjer heqa Waset
 imn-ḥtp nṯr ḥḳꜢ wꜢst
 Amenhotep, God and ruler of Thebes
i-mn:n:Htp-nTr-HqA-R19
Before name change
Legrain, "Les steles d'Amenothes IV". ASAE 3. 260

Variants

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Jerome Chenchres 16 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 142–143
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 13–18
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 343–361
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 104–105

 

 



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With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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