Khufu

Also known as: Cheops Dynasty IV

The name of the pharaoh who had the Great pyramid at Giza built is of course the well known pharaoh Cheops, which is the hellenized version of his birth name, Khufu. He also used the longer Khnum-Khuf(u), most likely to accentuate his divine connection with the ram-headed creator god Khnum.

Manetho records indicate that Khufu ruled for 63 years, while Herodotus say 50, but the Turin King-list only 23 years. The exact number of years is not known, but 27 is considered as the lowest possibility, while it might be as high as 46 years, or more.

Reign of Khufu
AE Chronology2509–2483
von Beckerath2579–2556
Shaw2589–2566
Dodson2470–2447
Allen2551–2528
Malek2549–2526
Arnold2555–2520
Redford2609–2584
Turin Canon23 years
Manetho (Africanus)63 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Khufu: Medjedu
Medjedu
mḏdw
Who has been adhered to/followed
Aa24-w
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2b+d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Khufu: Medjed
Medjed
mḏd
Who has been adhered to/followed
Aa24
Mariette, Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie, II, plate 53
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:H2
Nebty name
Nebty name of Khufu: Medjeder
Medjeder
mḏd-r
Who has adhered to the Two Ladies
Aa24:r
Tomb of Chemetnu (Giza G5210)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 26a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:N1
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Khufu: Bikui-nebu
Bikui-nebu
bik.wi-nb.w
The golden double falcon
G5*G5:nbw
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2b
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:G1
Throne name
Throne name of Khufu: Khufu
Khufu
ḫwfw
He protects me
x-w-f-w
Tomb of Iymeri (Giza G6020)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 50b
Throne name variant A
Throne name (variant A) of Khufu: Khufu
Khufu
ḫfw
He protects me
x:f-W
Westcar Papyrus, 6.18
Throne name variant B
Throne name (variant B) of Khufu: Khufu*
Khufu*
ḫfw
He protects me
x:f-w
Abydos king list 21
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:E4
Throne name variant C
Throne name (variant C) of Khufu: Khufu*
Khufu*
ḫwfwf
He protects me
x:f-w-f
Saqqara king list 42
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:E5
Throne name variant D
Throne name (variant D) of Khufu: Khufu
Khufu
ḫwfw
He protects me
x:D43-f-w
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 124
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 2:E2
Throne name variant E
Throne name (variant E) of Khufu: Khufu*
Khufu*
ḫfw
He protects me
x-w-f
Wadi Hammamat inscription
Drioton, Une Liste des Rois de la IV Dynastie dans l'Ouadi Hammamat. BSFE 16, 41-49
Throne name variant F
Throne name (variant F) of Khufu: Khnum Khufu
Khnum Khufu
ḫnmw ḫwfw
Khnum protects me
W9R-E10-x-w-f
Tomb of Iymeri (Giza G6020)
Tallet, Des papyrus du temps de Chéops au ouadi el-Jarf, BSFE 188 (2014), 42, fig. 17
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 50a
Throne name variant G
Throne name (variant G) of Khufu: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 4.10
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:10

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 2 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 63 years
Eusebius iv, 3 Σoυφις Souphis Soyphis
Herodotus 124 Χεοπα Kheops Cheops
Diodorus 1.63.2 Χεμμις Khemmis Chemmis 50 years
Eratosthenes 15 Σαωφις Saophis Saophis 29 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 52–53
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 189–191
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 72–83
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 35

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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