Menkaura

Also known as: Menkaure, Mykerinos, Mycerinus Dynasty IV

According to Africanus, Manetho named Mencheres (Menkaura) as the successor of king Bicheris, but according to the archaeological records, he was the successor of Khafra. Eusebius' record of Manetho's fourth dynasty only mentions one king by name; Soyphis (Khufu). The fourth dynasty in the Turin papyrus is heavily damaged, but Khafra can be read in 4.12. The name that would occupy 4.14 mentions a reign of at least 28 years, which can hardly be anyone but Menkaura.

Reign of Menkaura
AE Chronology2447–2442
von Beckerath2514–2486
Shaw2532–2503
Dodson2414–2396
Allen2490–2472
Malek2488–2460
Arnold2472–2454
Redford2551–2523
Turin Canon28+ years
Manetho (Africanus)63 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Menkaura: Ka khet
Ka khet
kꜢ-ẖt
The bull of the (divine) Corporation
kA-E1:X
Legrain, Achats à Louqsor, ASAE 4 (1903): 134
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Menkaura: Ka khet
Ka khet
kꜢ-ẖt
The bull of the (divine) Corporation
kA-D52:X
Kaplony Die Rollsiegel des Alten Reiches, II, plate XXXIV
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:H2
Nebty name
Nebty name of Menkaura: Ka
Ka
kꜢ
The bull (by means) of the Two Ladies
kA-E1
Legrain, Achats à Louqsor, ASAE 4 (1903): 134
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Menkaura: Netjery bik nebu
Netjery bik nebu
nṯr-bik-nbw
The golden falcon is divine
nTr*G7:nbw
Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Königlichen Museen zu Berlin, (19999)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:G
Throne name
Throne name of Menkaura: Men ka Ra
Men ka Ra
mn-kꜢ-rꜤ
The established one of the ka of Ra
ra-mn-kA
Kaplony Die Rollsiegel des Alten Reiches, II, plate XXXV
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Menkaura: Men kau Ra*
Men kau Ra*
mn-kꜢw-rꜤ
The established one of the kas of Ra
ra:mn-kA*kA:kA
Saqqara king list 39
(only seen on the Saqqara king list by Mariette in 1864.)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:E1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Menkaura: Men kau Ra*
Men kau Ra*
mn-kꜢw-rꜤ
The established one of the kas of Ra
ra-mn:n-kA:Z2
Abydos king list 24
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 6:E3
Throne name variant
Throne name of Menkaura: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 4.14
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:14

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 4 Mενχερης Menkheres Mencheres 63 years
Herodotus 129 Μυκερινον Mycerinus Mycerinos
Diodorus 1.64.6 Μυκερινος Mukerinos Mycerinus
Eratosthenes 17 Μοσχερως Moskheres Moscheres 31 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 54–55
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 200–202
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 95–100
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 36

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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