Merenptah

Also known as: Merneptah Dynasty XIX

Merenptah was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II and ascended the throne when he was at least sixty years old. While Manetho records that he ruled for 20 years, it was probably only about half of that.

Reign of Merenptah
AE Chronology1213–1203
von Beckerath1213–1203
Shaw1213–1203
Dodson1212–1201
Malek1213–1203
Arnold1224–1214
Grimal1212–1202
Redford1237–1226
Manetho (Africanus)20 years
Manetho (Eusebius)40 years
Manetho (Jerome)40 years
Highest attestationYear 10

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-V71-A28-m-H6
Libyan war stela of Merenptah (Athribis stela), Cairo JdE 50568 (recto)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 20:8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H1
Horus name variant A1
Horus name (variant A1) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-A28-Aa15-Aa11v:t-C10A
CG 34025 (Israel stele)
Petrie, Six temples at Thebes, plate XIII and XIV
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 13:7
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H2
Horus name variant A2
Horus name (variant A2) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-H*A28:a-m-C10A
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 64:5
Horus name variant A3
Horus name (variant A3) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-H-A137-m&t-H6
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 43:16
Petrie, Tanis, II, plate VII (137)
Horus name variant A4
Horus name (variant A4) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-V71-A28-M:mAa
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 51:13
Horus name variant A5
Horus name (variant A5) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
E1:D40-H-a:Z4*A28-m-C10A
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 72:14
Horus name variant A6
Horus name (variant A6) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-H-a:Z4-A28*H6:Aa15
Usurped Ramesses II colossus, dorsal pillar (Cairo JdE 35126)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 59:1-2
Horus name variant A7
Horus name (variant A7) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat
Ka nakht ha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth
E1:D40-H-Z4-A28-a-m-C10A
Memphis Palace of Merenptah
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 55:5
Horus name variant A8
Horus name (variant A8) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha em Maat henek su en Ra em kheret-heru
Ka nakht ha em Maat henek su en Ra em kheret-heru
kꜢ-nḫt ḥꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt ḥnk-sw-n-rꜤ-m-ẖrt-hrw
The strong bull who rejoiced in Truth, and who offers it to Ra every day
E1:D40-H-a:y-A28-m-C10A-H-M2:n-k:D38-sw-w-n:(ra:Z1)*A40-Aa15:T28:r-ra:Z1:t
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 200d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H3
Horus name variant B1
Horus name (variant B1) of Merenptah: Ka nakht der pedjut 9
Ka nakht der pedjut 9
kꜢ-nḫt dr-pḏt
The strong bull who repelled the Nine Bows
E1:D40-d:r:pD-3:3:3
ASAE, 15, 104
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 54:11
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H9
Horus name variant B2
Horus name (variant B2) of Merenptah: Ka nakht der pedjut 9
Ka nakht der pedjut 9
kꜢ-nḫt dr-pḏt-9
The strong bull (who defeated?) the Nine Bows
E1:D40-H-A24-T10:t*3:3*3
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 13:8
CG 34025 (Israel stele)
Horus name variant C
Horus name (variant C) of Merenptah: Ka nakht mai hebenef
Ka nakht mai hebenef
kꜢ-nḫt iw-ḥbn.n.f
The strong bull (like) a triumphant lion
E1:D40-E22A-H*b:n:nw*W-T30:D40:n:f
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 1:8
Wall stele of Merenptah at temple of Amada
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H4
Horus name variant D1
Horus name (variant D1) of Merenptah: Ka nakht sa Amun
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-imn
The strong bull, son of Amun
E1:D40-zA&Z1-i-mn:n
Petrie, Tanis, II, plate 7
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H11
Horus name variant D2
Horus name (variant D2) of Merenptah: Ka nakht sa Amun
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-imn
E1:D40-C12A-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, II, plate VII 136
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 43:5
Horus name variant E1
Horus name (variant E1) of Merenptah: Ka nakht sa Ra
Ka nakht sa Ra
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-rꜤ
The strong bull, son of Ra
E1:D40-zA&ra
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 55:1
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H10
Horus name variant E2
Horus name (variant E2) of Merenptah: Ka nakht sa Tatenen
Ka nakht sa Tatenen
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ṯꜢ-tnn
The strong bull, son of Tatenen
E1:D40-C18C-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, II, plate 7
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 43:7
Horus name variant F
Horus name (variant F) of Merenptah: Ka nakht nesu tawy
Ka nakht nesu tawy
kꜢ-nḫt nsw-tꜢwi
The strong bull and king of the Two Lands
E1:D40-sw-t:N17:N17
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 54:16
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H14
Horus name variant G
Horus name (variant G) of Merenptah: Ka nakht per em Ra
Ka nakht per em Ra
kꜢ-nḫt pri-m-rꜤ
The strong bull who has emerged as Ra
E1:D40-pr:D54-Aa15:ra*Z1
Qaha obelisk in Egyptian Museum in Cairo (face 4)
CG 17025
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 31:12
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H5
Horus name variant H
Horus name (variant H) of Merenptah: Hotep her Maat mi Tatenen
Hotep her Maat mi Tatenen
ḥtp-ḥr-mꜢꜤt mi-tꜢṯnn
Satisfied with Maat,like Tatenen
Htp:D2*Z1-C10A-C18F-mi
Qaha obelisk in Egyptian Museum in Cairo (face 1 left)
CG 17025
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 31:5
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H7
Horus name variant I
Horus name (variant I) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ba en Ra djet Itemu
Ka nakht ba en Ra djet Itemu
kꜢ-nḫt bꜢ-n-rꜤ ḏt-itmw
The strong bull, (with) spirit of Ra and body of Atum
E1:n-ra:Z1-D&&&(t*Z1)-t:U15
Qaha obelisk in Egyptian Museum in Cairo (face 1 right)
CG 17025
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 31:4
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H6
Horus name variant J
Horus name (variant J) of Merenptah: Ka nakht ha tawy (?)
Ka nakht ha tawy (?)
kꜢ-nḫt hꜤꜤ-tꜢwi
E1:D40-H-A137:N17:N17
Usurped R2 colossus, base block (Cairo JdE 35126)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 59:6
Horus name variant K1
Horus name (variant K1) of Merenptah: Ka nakht akh en Atum
Ka nakht akh en Atum
kꜢ-nḫt Ꜣḫ-n-itm
The strong bull, beneficial to Atum
E1:D40-Ax&x:n-t:U15:Aa15
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 50:13
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H13
Horus name variant K2
Horus name (variant K2) of Merenptah: Ka nakht akh en Ra
Ka nakht akh en Ra
kꜢ-nḫt Ꜣḫ-n-rꜤ
The strong bull, beneficial to Ra
E1:D40-G25&x:n-ra*C2:nb
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 50:10
Horus name variant L
Horus name (variant L) of Merenptah: Neb hebu khau
Neb hebu khau
nb-ḥꜢbw-ḫꜤw
Possessor of festivals and crowns
nb:O23K*Z3-xa:xa*xa
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 54:14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H12
Horus name variant M
Horus name (variant M) of Merenptah: Nedj her itef mity Maat
Nedj her itef mity Maat
nḏ-ḥr-it.f miti-mꜢꜤt
Protector of his father, the likeness of Maat
Aa27-nw:D40-D2*Z1:t:f-Z1:f-mi:t-H6-C10A
Qaha obelisk in Egyptian Museum in Cairo (face 2)
CG 17025
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 31:8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:H8
Nebty name
Nebty name of Merenptah: Iri bau er ta en Temehu
Iri bau er ta en Temehu
iri-bꜢw-r-tꜢ-n-ṯmhw
Who exercised power against the land of the Temehu
D4:G30-Z3-r:N16:Z1*N21-N-ti-m-H-w-T14-A1*A1:N17-Z3
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 20:9
Athribis stela, Cairo JdE 50568
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:N1
Nebty name variant A1
Nebty name (variant A1) of Merenptah: Kha mi Ptah em khenu hefnu
Kha mi Ptah em khenu hefnu
ḫꜤi-mi-ptḥ-m-ẖnw-ḥfnw
Who has appeared like Ptah among hundreds of thousands
xa:a:Y1-mi-p:t-H-m-F26:n-I8A:Z2
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 200d (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:N3
Nebty name variant A2
Nebty name (variant A2) of Merenptah: Kha mi Ptah em khenu hefnu er semen hepu neferu em-khet tawy
Kha mi Ptah em khenu hefnu er semen hepu neferu em-khet tawy
ḫꜤi-mi-ptḥ-m-ẖnw-ḥfnw-r-smn-hpw-nfrw-m-ḫt-tꜢwi
Who has appeared like Ptah among hundreds of thousands in order to establish the perfect laws throughout the Two Lands
xa:(p:t)*H-mi-Aa15:F26:n:nw*O1-I8:I8:I8-r:s*(mn:n:Y1)-O4A:p-w-V12:3-nfr-Z3-Aa15:M3:x*t:N21*N21
. Ramesside Inscriptions, iV, 58:7
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 198e
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:N2
Nebty name variant B
Nebty name (variant B) of Merenptah: Aa pehty wer nakhtu
Aa pehty wer nakhtu
ꜤꜢ-pḥti wr-nḫtw
Great of might and important of victories
aA:a:F9*F9-wr:r-n:xt:x^^^D40:t*W
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 1:8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:N4
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name (variant C) of Merenptah: Neb senedj aa shefyt
Neb senedj aa shefyt
nb-snḏ ꜤꜢ-šfit
Lord of fear and great of majesty
nb:snD-aA:N37:f-F8
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 1:9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:G1
Golden Horus name variant D
Golden Horus name (variant D) of Merenptah: Senakht Kemet der pedjut 9 er dit hotep netjeru em mersen
Senakht Kemet der pedjut 9 er dit hotep netjeru em mersen
snḫt-kmt dr-pḏt-r-dit-ḥtp-nṯrw-mr.sn
Who has strengthened Egypt and repelled the Nine Bows in order to satisfy the gods with what they love
s-n:M3:x*t:D40-I6:Aa15:t*niwt-d:r:D40-T10:t*Z2:Z2*Z2-r:t:a:Htp-R8*R8*R8-m-U7:r-z:n:Z2
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 66
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 4:G2
Throne name
Throne name of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery netjeru
Ba en Ra, mery netjeru
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-nṯrw
The soul of Ra, beloved of the Gods
ra-E1:n-N36:R8A
Mariette, Abydos II, pl. 50
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T8
Throne name variant A
Throne name (variant A) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery netjeru
Ba en Ra, mery netjeru
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-nṯrw
The soul of Ra, beloved of the Gods
C2-E11:n-R8A:N36
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate 2 (8 B)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T7
Throne name variant B1
Throne name (variant B1) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery Amun
Ba en Ra, mery Amun
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-imn
The soul of Ra, beloved of Amun
C2A\-C12A-N36-E11*Z1:n
Black granite statue, CG 42148
Throne name variant B2
Throne name (variant B2) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery Amun
Ba en Ra, mery Amun
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-imn
The soul of Ra, beloved of Amun
U6\-C12\-C2-E1:n
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 200d (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T1
Throne name variant B3
Throne name (variant B3) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery Amun
Ba en Ra, mery Amun
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-imn
The soul of Ra, beloved of Amun
E1:n-C53A-C12M-N36
Black granite statue, CG 42148
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T3
Throne name variant B4
Throne name (variant B4) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery Amun
Ba en Ra, mery Amun
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-imn
The soul of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-E1:n-C12-mr
Black granite statue, CG 42148
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T4
Throne name 0 variant B5
Throne name (variant B5) of Merenptah: Ba en Ra, mery Amun
Ba en Ra, mery Amun
bꜢ-n-rꜤ mri-imn
The soul of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-G29&1*G7:n-mr-i-mn:n
Papyrus Anastasi III 7.2 - British Museum EA10246.5
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:T5
Birth name
Birth name of Merenptah: Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
mri-n-ptḥ ḥtp-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
Beloved of Ptah, Maat is satisfied
C102\-C10A-N36:n-Htp:D2*Z1
. Ramesside Inscriptions, IV, 31
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:E1
Birth name variant A1
Birth name (variant A1) of Merenptah: Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
mri.n-ptḥ ḥtp-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
Beloved of Ptah, Maat is satisfied
U6\-C102\-C10A-n:Htp:D2*Z1
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 200d (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:E2
Birth name variant A2
Birth name (variant A2) of Merenptah: Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
mri.n-ptḥ ḥtp-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
Beloved of Ptah, Maat is satisfied
C19-N36:n-C178-Htp:D2*Z1
Walking statue of Merenptah, Cairo CG 42148
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 158-159, 4:E3
Birth name variant A3
Birth name (variant A3) of Merenptah: Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
Mer en Ptah, hotep her Maat
mri.n-ptḥ ḥtp-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
Beloved of Ptah, Maat is satisfied
U6\-p:t-H-C10A-n:Htp:D2*Z1
Walking statue of Merenptah, Cairo CG 42148

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xix, 3 Aμενεφθης Amenephthes Amenephthes 20 years
Eusebius xix, 3 Aμμενεφθίς Ammenephthis Ammenephthis 40 years
Jerome 41 Ammenophis 40 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 156–159
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 205–208
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 113–126
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 120–122

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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