Neferneferuaten

Also known as: Nefertiti, Meritaten Dynasty XVIII

Neferneferuaten was a female pharaoh who most likely was Akhenatens wife Nefertiti, but it is also possible that she was their daughter Meritaten, the wife of Smenkhkara. The throne name Ankhkheperura was used by both Neferneferuaten and Smenkhkara, which has led to a great deal of confusion as throne names tended to be unique.
It is now widely accepted that when Ankhkheperura include an epiteth, it belongs to Neferneferuaten, and where no epiteth is included, it belongs to Smekhkara. It is even possible that both names refer to only one pharaoh.

Manetho mentions Akencheres, a daughter of the king that ruled for 12 years toward the end of the dynasty, according to Josephus.

Reign of Neferneferuaten
AE Chronology1334–?
Dodson1346–1343
Manetho (Josephus)12y 1m
Manetho (Africanus)12 years
Manetho (Eusebius)12 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Throne name
Throne name of Neferneferuaten: Ankhet kheperu Ra, meryt wa en Ra
Ankhet kheperu Ra, meryt wa en Ra
Ꜥnḫt-ḫprw-rꜤ mri-wꜤ-n-rꜤ
The (very) life of the manifestations of Ra, beloved of Waenra
ra-anx:t-xpr:Z2-N36:t*ra-wa:n
Scarab seal
Petrie, Tell el Amarna, plate XV (94)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 10bis:T
Throne name variant
Throne name of Neferneferuaten: Ankh kheperu Ra, mery nefer kheperu Ra
Ankh kheperu Ra, mery nefer kheperu Ra
Ꜥnḫ-ḫprw-rꜤ mri nfr-ḫprw-rꜤ
The (very) life of the manifestations of Ra, beloved of Neferkheperura
ra-anx-xpr-Z2:N37-ra-nfr-xpr
Carter, no. 1k, wooden box from Tutankhamun's tomb (JE 61500a-b)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 11:T2
Birth name
Birth name of Neferneferuaten: Nefer neferu Aten, akhet en hyes
Nefer neferu Aten, akhet en hyes
nfr-nfrw-itn Ꜣḫt-n-h(i).s
Perfect is the perfection of Aten, effective for her husband
i-t:n:ra-nfr-nfr-nfr-nfr-t&G25&t-n:O4:z
Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Tout-ânkhamon, fig. 9 and 10
Birth name variant
Birth name of Neferneferuaten: Nefer neferu Aten, mery wa en Ra
Nefer neferu Aten, mery wa en Ra
nfr-nfrw-itn mri-wꜤ-n-rꜤ
Perfect is the perfection of Aten, beloved of Waenra
i-t:n:ra-nfr-nfr-nfr-nfr-N37:ra-wa:n
Carter, no. 1k, wooden box from Tutankhamun's tomb (JE 61500a-b)

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 13 Aχερρης Akherres Acherres 12 years
Eusebius xviii, 9 Aχενχερσης Akhenkherses Achencherses 12 years
Jerome Achencheres 12 years
Josephus 96 Aκεγχερης Akenkheres ♀ Acencheres ♀ 12 years, 1 month

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 142–143
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 273–275
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 105

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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