Neferusobek

Also known as: Sobekneferu Dynasty XII

Neferusobek is the first queen of Egypt that can be verified to actually have ruled as a pharaoh. Her name is present in Manetho's king list as Skemiophris, which is a transcription into Greek of her birth name. Her name is also found in the Turin Canon preserving her reign as 3 years, 10 months and 24 days. Her throne name is found on the Saqqara king list number 22, and her birth name might have occupied Karnak king list number 22.

Reign of Neferusobek
AE Chronology1763–1760
von Beckerath1798–1794
Shaw1799–1795
Dodson1785–1781
Malek1805–1801
Arnold1787–1783
Grimal1790–1785
Franke1763–1759
Redford1790–1786
Turin Canon3y 10m 24d
Manetho (Africanus)4 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Neferusobek: Meryt Ra
Meryt Ra
mri-t-rꜤ
Beloved of Ra
ra:Z1-U7:t
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:H2
Horus name variant
Horus name of Neferusobek: Meryt Ra
Meryt Ra
mry.t-rꜤ
Beloved of Ra
ra-mr-i-i-t
ASAE 52, pl. 15
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:H1
Nebty name
Nebty name of Neferusobek: Sat sekhem nebet tawy
Sat sekhem nebet tawy
sꜢt-sḫm-nbt-tꜢwi
Daughter of the powerful one, mistress of the Two Lands
zA&t-sxm-nb:t:N17:N17
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Neferusobek: Djedet khau
Djedet khau
ḏdt-ḫꜤw
Established of crowns
Dd*(t:xa)*G5:nbw
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:G
Throne name
Throne name of Neferusobek: Sobek ka Ra
Sobek ka Ra
sbk-kꜢ-rꜤ
Sobek is the Ka of Ra
ra-I4-kA
Saqqara king list 22
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:T
Birth name
Birth name of Neferusobek: Sobek neferu Ra
Sobek neferu Ra
sbk-nfrw-rꜤ
The beauty of Sobek and Ra
ra-I4-nfr-w
Karnak king list 22
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 609 (III 5)
Traces of neferu visible on early drawings.
Birth name variant
Birth name of Neferusobek: Neferu Sobek Ra
Neferu Sobek Ra
nfrw-sbk-rꜤ
The beauty of Sobek and Ra
ra-F35-F35-F35-I3-G7
Royal Canon of Turin 7.2
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), VI:2
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:E5
Birth name variant
Birth name of Neferusobek: Neferu Sobek
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
N5-I4-F35-F35-F35-H8:X1
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 140e-f
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:E4
Birth name variant
Birth name of Neferusobek: Neferu Sobek
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
I5-O200*O200-F35-F35-F35
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (Cylinder seal EA16581)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:E3
Birth name variant
Birth name of Neferusobek: Neferu Sobek
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
F35-F35-F35-I3
Rock inscription at second cataract, year 3
Reisner, "Excavations in Egypt and Ethiopia 1922-1925". BMFA 23, 21
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 8:E1

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xii, 7 Σκεμιoφρις Skemiophris ♀ Scemiophris 4 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 86–87
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 455–457
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 341–343
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 60

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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