Pepi II

Also known as: Pepy II, Neferkare Dynasty VI

Pepi II became king when he was six years old, and according to Manetho, he went on to rule for 94 years. That he did rule for some sixty odd years can be corroborated, but anything more than that is uncertain. His long reign is thought to have led to stagnation of the administration of the kingdom, and was perhaps a key ingredient of the fall of the Old Kingdom. Manetho trancribed Pepi into Greek as Phiops.

Reign of Pepi II
AE Chronology2216–2153
von Beckerath2254–2194
Shaw2278–2184
Dodson2212–2118
Allen2246–2152
Malek2236–2143
Franke2245–2180
Redford2300–2206
Turin Canon90+x years
Manetho (Africanus)94 years
Highest attestationYear 62

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Pepi II: Netjer khau
Netjer khau
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw
Divine of appearances
nTr-xa-w
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 64-65, 5:H
Horus name variant
Horus name of Pepi II: Netjeri khau nefer ka Ra
Netjeri khau nefer ka Ra
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Divine of appearances, the perfect one of the ka of Ra
nTr-xa-w-ra-nfr-kA
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 116a
Nebty name
Nebty name of Pepi II: Netjeri khau
Netjeri khau
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw
The divine one of the appearances of the Two Ladies
nTr-xa-w
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 116a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 64-65, 5:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Pepi II: Bik nebu sekhem
Bik nebu sekhem
bik-nbw-sẖm
The powerful golden falcon
sxm*G5:nbw
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 116a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 64-65, 5:G
Throne name
Throne name of Pepi II: Nefer ka Ra*
Nefer ka Ra*
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The perfect one of the ka of Ra
ra-nfr-kA
Abydos king list 38
Saqqara king list 23
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 113g
Throne name variant
Throne name of Pepi II: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 5.5
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), IV:5
Birth name
Birth name of Pepi II: Pepi
Pepi
pipi
Pepi
p:p-i-i
Passim
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I
Birth name variant
Birth name of Pepi II: Pepi
Pepi
zꜢ-rꜤ-pipi
Son of Ra, Pepi
zA&ra-p:p-i-i
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I, 114
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 64-65, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Birth name of Pepi II: Pepi
Pepi
pipi
p-p-i-i
Karnak king list 15
Uncertain reading but Prisse show p-i, with traces of what could be another p-i.
Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Égyptiens..., Plate I
Throne + Birth name variant
Throne + Birth name of Pepi II: Pepi nefer ka Ra
Pepi nefer ka Ra
pipi nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Pepi, perfect is the soul of Ra
p:p-i-i-ra-nfr-kA
Petrie, Koptos, plate V (7)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 64-65, 5:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus vi, 4 Φιωψ Phiops Phiops 94 years
Eusebius v, 4 Φιωψ Phiops Phiops 94 years
Eratosthenes 20 Aπαππους Apappous Apappus 100 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 64–65
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 295–297
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 169–176
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 43

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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