Ramesses II

Also known as: Rameses II, Ramses II Dynasty XIX

The most prolific builder of the kingdom ever saw, his name can be found virtually everywhere a temple had been built. The sheer number and variants of his names has no rival.

Reign of Ramesses II
AE Chronology1279–1213
von Beckerath1279–1213
Shaw1279–1213
Dodson1279–1212
Malek1279–1213
Arnold1290–1224
Grimal1279–1212
Redford1304–1237
Manetho (Josephus)66y 2m
Manetho (Africanus)61 years
Manetho (Eusebius)66 years
Manetho (Jerome)66 years
Highest attestationYear 67

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Ra
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-C2-mr
Place de la Concorde obelisk North right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H3
Horus name variant A1
Horus name (variant A1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Ra
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-ra:1-A40-N36
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant A2
Horus name (variant A2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Ra
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-ra:1-A40-mr-i-i
Luxor obelisk, West left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant A3
Horus name (variant A3) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Ra petpet khasut nebut kher tjebutef
Ka nakht mery Ra petpet khasut nebut kher tjebutef
kꜢ-nḫt-mri-rꜤ ptpt-ḫꜢswt-nb(w)t ḫr-ṯbwt.f
Strong bull, beloved of Ra, who has trampled all the foreign countries under his sandals
E1:D40-C2-mr-p*p:t*t:D40
Rhetorical stela (Tanis V, face C)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II 294:10
Petrie, Tanis, II, pl. III (81)
Horus name variant B1
Horus name (variant B1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Maat
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-C10A-mr
Place de la Concorde obelisk, North center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B2
Horus name (variant B2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Maat
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-Aa11v:t-C10A-N36
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B3
Horus name (variant B3) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Maat
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-Aa11v:t-C10A-mr-i-i
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B4
Horus name (variant B4) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Maat
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-mr-i-i-Aa11v:t-C10A
Mariette, Abydos, II, pl. 20a (1)
Horus name variant B5
Horus name (variant B5) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Maat neb habu sed mi itef Ptah Tatenen
Ka nakht mery Maat neb habu sed mi itef Ptah Tatenen
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt nb-ḥꜢbw-sd-mi-it.f-ptḥ-tꜢṯnn
The strong bull, beloved of Maat, possessor of Sed festivals like his father Ptah-Tatenen
E1:D40-C10A-mr-nb:O23D-Z3-mi-t:f:Z1:f-p:t-H-C18C
Blessing of Ptah, Karnak Pylon IX (west)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 259:2-4
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H2
Horus name variant C1
Horus name (variant C1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Amun
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt imn-zꜢ
The strong bull, son of Amun
E1:D40-i-mn:n-zA&1
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant C2
Horus name (variant C2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Amun
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt imn-zꜢ
The strong bull, son of Amun
E1:D40-i-mn:n:H8*1
Luxor obelisk, North right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant C3
Horus name (variant C3) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Atum
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ttm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-zA&1-t:tm
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 501:4
Horus name variant C4
Horus name (variant C4) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Atum
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-itm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-zA-t:tm
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (44)
Horus name variant C5
Horus name (variant C5) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Atum
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-itm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-t:tm-H8:Z1
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424:3 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography IV, 20 (163)
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate XI (60)
Horus name variant C6
Horus name (variant C6) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Tatenen
Ka nakht sa Tatenen
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ṯꜢ-tnn
The strong bull, son of Tatenen
E1:D40-C18C-H8:1
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 501:8
Horus name variant C7
Horus name (variant C7) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Ptah
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-C20-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (46)
Horus name variant C8
Horus name (variant C8) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Ptah
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-C12-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VI (43 B)
Horus name variant C9
Horus name (variant C9) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sa Ptah
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-p:t-H-H8:Z1
Petrie, Tanis, I, pl. IX (52), pl. VI (43 B)
Horus name variant D1
Horus name (variant D1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user pehty
Ka nakht user pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-pḥty
The strong bull, strong of might
E1:D40-wsr-F9:F9
Place de la Concorde obelisk, North left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant D2
Horus name (variant D2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user pehty
Ka nakht user pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-pḥti
The strong bull, strong of might
E1:D40-wsr-s-F9:F9
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (50)
Horus name variant D3
Horus name (variant D3) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht wer pehty
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥty
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:r-F9:F9
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant D4
Horus name (variant D4) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht wer pehty
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥti
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:F9*F9
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424/3 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, IV, 20 (163)
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate XI (60)
Horus name variant E1
Horus name (variant E1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
E1:D40-C177-mr
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 405 (152A)
Petrie Hyksos and Israelite cities, plates XXIX-XXX
Horus name variant E2
Horus name (variant E2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
E1:D40-C177-N36
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 152g
Horus name variant F
Horus name (variant F) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mery Ptah
Ka nakht mery Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt mri-ptḥ
The strong bull, beloved of Ptah
E1:D40-p:t-H-mr
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (45)
Horus name variant G
Horus name (variant G) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht mek Kemet
Ka nakht mek Kemet
kꜢ-nḫt mk-kmt
The strong bull, protector of Egypt
E1:D40-G20-k:S32:t*O49
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20a (2)
Horus name variant H
Horus name (variant H) of Ramesses II: Ka en sekhem Ra
Ka en sekhem Ra
kꜢ-n-sḫm-rꜤ
The powerful bull of Ra
E1:n-C2A-sxm
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (47)
Horus name variant I1
Horus name (variant I1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht wer habu sed mery tawy
Ka nakht wer habu sed mery tawy
kꜢ-nḫt wr-ḥꜢbw-sd mri-tꜢwi
The Strong bull, great of Sed festivals and beloved of the Two Lands
E1:D40-wr:r-O23K:Z2-N36:N17:N17:N21*N21
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant I2
Horus name (variant I2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht wer hebu sed
Ka nakht wer hebu sed
kꜢ-nḫt wr-ḥb-sd-3
The Strong bull, great of Sed festivals
E1:D40-wr:O23-Z2A
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 501:3
Horus name variant I3
Horus name (variant I3) of Ramesses II: Wer habu sed mi Tatenen
Wer habu sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜢbw(-sd)-mi-tꜢtnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23P-1:2-mi-C18C
. Ramesside Inscriptions, III, 111 (65)
University Museum of Philadelphia E 13566
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H26
Horus name variant J1
Horus name (variant J1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
kꜢ-nḫt wr-nḫtw ꜤḥꜢ-ḥr-ḫpš.f
The strong bull, who has fought with his strong arm
E1:D40-wr:r-n:xt:x*t-Z2:D40-D34-D2-xpS:f
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant J2
Horus name (variant J2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤḥꜢ-ḥr-ḫpš.f
The strong bull, who has fought with his strong arm
E1:D40-D34-D2:Z1-xpS:D40:f
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant K
Horus name (variant K) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht tjes tawy
Ka nakht tjes tawy
kꜢ-nḫt ṯz-tꜢwi
The strong bull, who has governed the Two Lands
E1:D40-Tz:z:D40-N17:N17:N21*N21
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 420:9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H20
Horus name variant L
Horus name (variant L) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sedj setjetu
Ka nakht sedj setjetu
kꜢ-nḫt sḏ-sṯtiw
The strong bull, who shattered the Asiatics
E1:D40-s-d:N21*Z9:D40-S22:t*t-G4&Z2
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 605:15
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H24
Horus name variant M1
Horus name (variant M1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht kheper netjer
Ka nakht kheper netjer
kꜢ-nḫt ḫpr-r-nṯr
E1:D40-xpr:r-A40:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (50)
Horus name variant M2
Horus name (variant M2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht kheper sa netjer
Ka nakht kheper sa netjer
kꜢ-nḫt ḫpr-sꜢ-nṯr
E1:D40-xpr:H8-A40
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424:5 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant N1
Horus name (variant N1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user Maat
Ka nakht user Maat
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, strong of Maat
E1:D40-wsr-C10A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 g
Horus name variant N2
Horus name (variant N2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user khepesh
Ka nakht user khepesh
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-ḫpš
The strong bull, strong with sword
E1:D40-wsr-T16A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 d (3)
Horus name variant N3
Horus name (variant N3) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user renput
Ka nakht user renput
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-rnpwt
The strong bull, rich in years
E1:D40-wsr-rnp-t:3
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 b (2)
Horus name variant N4
Horus name (variant N4) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht user renput Hefenu
Ka nakht user renput Hefenu
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-rnpt ḥfnw
The strong bull rich in immesureable years
E1:D40-wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-I8A-I8A-I8A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 19 d
Horus name variant O
Horus name (variant O) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht aa remu
Ka nakht aa remu
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢꜤ-rm-3
E1:D40-aA:a:H4*3
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 501:7
Horus name variant P
Horus name (variant P) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht hui ta neb
Ka nakht hui ta neb
kꜢ-nḫt ḥwi-tꜢ-nb
E1:D40-H-A24-N17:nb
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424:6 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant Q
Horus name (variant Q) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht aa shefyt
Ka nakht aa shefyt
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢ-šfit
The strong bull, great of majesty
E1:D40-aA:F7-t:3
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424/5 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant R1
Horus name (variant R1) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht hai her Maat
Ka nakht hai her Maat
kꜢ-nḫt hꜤi-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who rejoiced Maat
E1:D40-H-a:y-D2-C10A
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 586:9
Horus name variant R2
Horus name (variant R2) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht wetjes Maat
Ka nakht wetjes Maat
kꜢ-nḫt wṯz-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who has upheld Maat
E1:D40-U39-C10
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 c (3)
Horus name variant S
Horus name (variant S) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht em Ra sedjes tjetaw
Ka nakht em Ra sedjes tjetaw
kꜢ-nḫt m-rꜤ sḏ-sṯtiw
E1:D40-n:(ra:Z1)*A40-s-d:N21*Z9:D40-S22-t*G4*t:Z2
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant T
Horus name (variant T) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht sekhem pehty
Ka nakht sekhem pehty
kꜢ-nḫt sḫm-pḥti-nḫt
The strong bull, powerful of might
E1:D40-S42-F9*F9:D40
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 409:9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H9
Horus name variant U
Horus name (variant U) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht men ib sekhem pehty
Ka nakht men ib sekhem pehty
kꜢ-nḫt mn-ib sḫm-pḥti
The strong bull, decisive and mighty
E1:D40-mn:n:Y1-ib:Z1-sxm-F9*F9:t*t:D40
Luxor obelisk, West center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant V
Horus name (variant V) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht qa hedjet
Ka nakht qa hedjet
kꜢ-nḫt ḳꜢi-ḥḏt
The strong bull, whose White Crown is high
E1:D40-q-A28-S1
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 424:6 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant W
Horus name (variant W) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht seqa Waset
Ka nakht seqa Waset
kꜢ-nḫt sḳꜢi-wꜢst
The strong bull, who has elevated Thebes
E1:D40-s-q-A28-R19
Luxor obelisk, North center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant X
Horus name (variant X) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht seped abwy
Ka nakht seped abwy
kꜢ-nḫt spd-Ꜥbwi
The sharp-horned strong bull
E1:D40-M44-F16:F16
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (45)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:H17
Horus name variant Y
Horus name (variant Y) of Ramesses II: Ka en heqau mery Amun
Ka en heqau mery Amun
kꜢ-n-ḥḳꜢw mri-imn
The strong bull of the rulers, beloved of Amun
E1:n-HqA-HqA-HqA-C12C-mr
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (48)
Horus name variant Z
Horus name (variant Z) of Ramesses II: Ka nakht waf khasut
Ka nakht waf khasut
kꜤ-nḫt wꜢf-ḫꜢswt
Strong bull, who has subdued the foreign lands
E1:D40-G45:f-D206:N25:t*Z2
Abu Simbel blessing of Ptah stela
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 259:11
Nebty name
Nebty name of Ramesses II: Mek Kemet waf khasut
Mek Kemet waf khasut
mk-kmt wꜤf-ḫꜢswt
Protector of Egypt who curbs foreign lands
G20-k:I6-t:O49-G45-f:W:D40-N25:t*Z2
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:N1
Nebty name variant A1
Nebty name (variant A1) of Ramesses II: Mek Kemet waf khasut Ra mes netjer gereg tawy
Mek Kemet waf khasut Ra mes netjer gereg tawy
mk-kmt wꜤf-ḫꜢswt rꜤ-msi-nṯrw grg-tꜢwi
Protector of Egypt, who has subdued foreign lands, Ra whom the gods have borne, the founder of the Two Lands
Aa15:a:k-I6:t*O49-G45-f:D40-N25:t*Z2-C2-ms-s-nTrw-g:r-U17:Y1-N17:N17:N21*N21
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:N2
Nebty name variant A2
Nebty name (variant A2) of Ramesses II: Mek Kemet, waf khasut
Mek Kemet, waf khasut
mk kmt wꜤf ḫꜢswt
Protector of Egypt, who has subdued foreign lands
G20-k:I6-t:O49-G45-f:D40-N25:N25:N25
Luxor obelisk, South face marginal
. Ramesside Inscriptions II, 600:10
Nebty name variant B
Nebty name (variant B) of Ramesses II: Shesep netjeren Khepri
Shesep netjeren Khepri
šzp-nṯri-n-ḫpri
The divine image of Khepri
s-O42B:p-A53-nTr-t:r:Z4-Y1:n-xpr:r-A41
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:N3
Nebty name variant C
Nebty name (variant C) of Ramesses II: Wer shefit mek Kemet
Wer shefit mek Kemet
wr-šfiy.t mk-kmt
Great of majesty, the Protector of Egypt
wr:r-F7:t-G20-k:I6-t:O49
Luxor Obelisk (west face)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 599:5
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:N4
Nebty name variant D
Nebty name (variant D) of Ramesses II: Hai her Maat mi Akhty
Hai her Maat mi Akhty
ḥꜤi-ḥr-mꜢꜤt-mi-Ꜣḫti
Who has rejoiced in Maat like Horakhty
V71-A28-Y1v-D2:t-Aa11v:t-mAat-mi-N27:t*Z4:O1*O1
Luxor Obelisk (south face)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 599:8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:N6
Nebty name variant E
Nebty name (variant E) of Ramesses II: Semenekh menu em Ipet-resyt en itef imen di su her nesetef
Semenekh menu em Ipet-resyt en itef imen di su her nesetef
smnḫ mnw m ipt-rsy(t) n it.f imn di sw ḥr nst.f
Who has made monuments splendid in Ipet-Resyt for his father Amun who put him on the throne
s-mn:n:x*mnx:mDAt-mn:nw*nw*nw:Aa15-O45:O1-M24-t:1-n:t:f-i-mn:n-X8-sw-w-(Hr:t-g:O1):f
Luxor pylon
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 605:11
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:N5
Nebty name variant F
Nebty name (variant F) of Ramesses II: Aha en hehu, mai sekhem-ib
Aha en hehu, mai sekhem-ib
ꜤḥꜢ n ḥḥw mꜢi sḫm-ib
Who has fought for millions, a stout-hearted lion
D34-D40:n-C11-1:3-E22-sxm-m&ib
Luxor obelisk, East face, center
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 602:15
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:N7
Nebty name variant G
Nebty name (variant G) of Ramesses II: Aha her khepeshef, mek meshauef
Aha her khepeshef, mek meshauef
ꜤḥꜢ ḥr ḫpš.f mk mšꜤw.f
Who has fought with his strong arm, the protector of his armies
D34-D40:D2*Z1-xpS:D40:f-Aa15:a:k-A12*Z3:f
Luxor pylon, east wing, north facade
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 605:15
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:N8
Nebty name variant H
Nebty name (variant H) of Ramesses II: Sekher pehu su in pehwy ta
Sekher pehu su in pehwy ta
sḫr pḥw sw in pḥwy tꜢ
Who has felled those who attacked him and who has captured the ends of the earth
s-x:A15:D40-F22:D54-sw-W25-n:F22-W*Z4:N17
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South face, center
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 603:2
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:N9
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Ramesses II: User renput aa nehktu
User renput aa nehktu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-aA:D40:Z2
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G1a
Golden Horus name variant A1
Golden Horus name (variant A1) of Ramesses II: User renput aa nakhtu
User renput aa nakhtu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp:I8A-rnp:I8A-rnp:I8A-aA:a:Y1-n:M3:x*t-G248:Z2
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 5 below
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:G1b
Golden Horus name variant A2
Golden Horus name (variant A2) of Ramesses II: User renput aa nakhtu
User renput aa nakhtu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-aA:a:Y1-n:xt:x*t-D40:t*Z2
Luxor pylon IV East wing, South face
. Ramesside Inscriptions II 352:11
Golden Horus name variant A3
Golden Horus name (variant A3) of Ramesses II: User renput, aa nesyt mi itemu, ity, mes netjeru, sekheper tawy
User renput, aa nesyt mi itemu, ity, mes netjeru, sekheper tawy
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nsyt mi itmw ity ms nṯrw sḫpr tꜢwy
Rich in years and great of kingship like Atum, the sovereign whom the gods fashioned, the one who has fostered the Two Lands
wsr-s-M4-M4-M4-O29v-sw-i-i-t:3-W19-i-t:U15:M-A304-i-ti-i-i-A23A-ms-s-A17-R8-A40:3-s-xpr:r-wAD-wAD
Karnak Temple of Amun, girdle wall
. Ramesside Inscriptions II 583:4
Golden Horus name variant B1
Golden Horus name (variant B1) of Ramesses II: User khepesh mery tawy
User khepesh mery tawy
wsr-ḫpš mri-tꜢwi
Strong of might, beloved of the Two Lands
F12-F23:N36:N17:N17
Luxor obelisk, south face
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 599:8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G3
Golden Horus name variant B2
Golden Horus name (variant B2) of Ramesses II: User khepesh, mery tawy
User khepesh, mery tawy
wsr-ḫpš mry tꜢwy
Strong of might, beloved of the Two Lands
wsr-x*p:N37:F24-N36:N17:N17:N21*N21
Luxor pylon IV East wing, South face (upper)
. Ramesside Inscriptions 352:13
Golden Horus name variant B3
Golden Horus name (variant B3) of Ramesses II: User khepesh
User khepesh
wsr-ḫpš
Strong of might
wsr-x*p:N37:T16
Derr temple, Nubia
. Ramesside Inscriptions II, 740:6
Golden Horus name variant B3
Golden Horus name (variant B3) of Ramesses II: Aa khepesh mery tawy
Aa khepesh mery tawy
ꜤꜢ-ḫpš mri-tꜢwi
Great of effectiveness, beloved of the Two Lands
aA:xpS-mr-i-i-N17:N17:N21*N21
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 586:10
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 152-153, 3:G2
Golden Horus name variant C
Golden Horus name (variant C) of Ramesses II: Wekha mi imy Waset
Wekha mi imy Waset
wḫꜢ mi-imi-wꜢst
A pillar, like the one who is in Thebes
R16-mi-Z11-R19-A40
Luxor obelisk north center column
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 599:3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G4
Golden Horus name variant D
Golden Horus name (variant D) of Ramesses II: Hehy akhut en mes su
Hehy akhut en mes su
ḥḥ-Ꜣḫwt-n-msi-sw
Who seeks benefits for the one who bore him
H-H-y:D54-t&G25&x:Z2-N-ms-s-s
Luxor pylon, west wing
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 605:12
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G5
Golden Horus name variant E
Golden Horus name (variant E) of Ramesses II: Sekhem khepesh der pedjut 9
Sekhem khepesh der pedjut 9
sḫm-ḫpš dr-pḏt-9
The powerful of arm, who has repelled the Nine Bows
sxm-Aa15:D40:xpS-d:r:D40-pD:t*3:3*3
Luxor pylon, west wing
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 605:15-16
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G6
Golden Horus name variant F
Golden Horus name (variant F) of Ramesses II: Wer nakhtu her khaset nebet
Wer nakhtu her khaset nebet
wr-nḫtw-ḥr-ḫꜢst-nbt
Great of victories in every foreign country
wr:r-n:M3-G248-x:Z2-D2:Z1-N25:nb:t
Place de la Concorde obelisk, east center column
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 602:16
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G7
Golden Horus name variant G
Golden Horus name (variant G) of Ramesses II: Wer fawet sekhem pehty
Wer fawet sekhem pehty
wr-fꜢwt sḫm-pḥti
Great of splendor and powerful of strength
wr:r:f-F40&W-t:3-sxm-F9*F9:D40
Luxor obelisk, east center column
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 603:2-3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G8
Golden Horus name variant H1
Golden Horus name (variant H1) of Ramesses II: Waf khasut der beshtu
Waf khasut der beshtu
wꜢf-ḫꜢswt dr-bšṯw
Who has subdued foreign countries and repelled the rebellious ones
G45-f:W:D40-N25:t*Z2-d:r:D40-b-N37:t*W-A14:Z2
Luxor obelisk west center column
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 599:5-6
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:G9
Golden Horus name variant H2
Golden Horus name (variant H2) of Ramesses II: Waf beshtu
Waf beshtu
wꜤf-bštw
Who has subdued the rebellious ones
G45:f-b-N37:t*A14A
Derr temple, Nubia
. Ramesside Inscriptions II 740:2
Throne name
Throne name of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra,  setep en Ra
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-wsr-C10A-stp&n&ra
Saqqara king list 1
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T9
Throne name variant A1
Throne name (variant A1) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra,  setep en Ra
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-C177-stp&n&ra
Abu Simbel
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 159.185ff
Throne name variant A2
Throne name (variant A2) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra,  setep en Ra
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-wsr-H6-stp&n&ra
ASAE, 9, 75
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T10
Throne name variant A3
Throne name (variant A3) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra,  setep en Ra
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
C59A-stp&n&ra
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 190
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T15
Throne name variant B1
Throne name (variant B1) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, tit Ra
User Maat Ra, tit Ra
esr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the (very) image of Ra
N5-C178-N5:D17
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 82:15
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175d
Throne name variant B2
Throne name (variant B2) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, tit Ra
User Maat Ra, tit Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the (very) image of Ra
ra-C178-ra:D17&t
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 85:2
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T5
Throne name variant C1
Throne name (variant C1) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
The justice of Ra is powerful, posessor of a strong arm/sword
ra-wsr-C10A-nb:xpS
CG 42143
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T12
Throne name variant C2
Throne name (variant C2) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ nb-ḫpš
The justice of Ra is powerful, posessor of a strong arm/sword
ra-wsr-C10A-z:nb-xpS
CG 42142
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T13
Throne name variant D
Throne name (variant D) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, heqa Waset
User Maat Ra, heqa Waset
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
The justice of Ra is powerful, ruler of Thebes
ra-C178-HqA-q-R19
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 89:14
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175a
Throne name variant E
Throne name (variant E) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, iwa Ra
User Maat Ra, iwa Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ iwꜢ-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the heir of Ra
ra-C178C-ra:iwa
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 90:10
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T7
Throne name variant F
Throne name (variant F) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra, mery Ra
User Maat Ra, mery Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, beloved of Ra
ra-C178-ra*Z1:U7
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 91:1
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T8
Throne name variant G1
Throne name (variant G1) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-wsr-C10A-z
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, VII, 26
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 717 (F)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 177
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T1
Throne name variant G2
Throne name (variant G2) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-wsr-s-C10A
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, VII, 16
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 717 (E)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 177a+e (top)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T2
Throne name variant G3
Throne name (variant G3) of Ramesses II: User Maat Ra
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-C178
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 82 (B)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 175d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:T4
Birth name
Birth name of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-ra:Z1-ms-s-sw
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 337
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E2
Birth name variant A1
Birth name (variant A1) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C59\-C12I-N36:ms*s*s
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 190
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E1
Birth name variant A2
Birth name (variant A2) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2-ms-s-sw
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E3
Birth name variant A3
Birth name (variant A3) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-i-mn:n:U7-ms*s-sw
Gardiner, The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate 70 (212)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E4
Birth name variant A4
Birth name (variant A4) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-C12-ms-s-s-mr
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 337
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E5
Birth name variant A5
Birth name (variant A5) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2A-ms*s:z
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E6
Birth name variant A6
Birth name (variant A6) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-i-mn:n:N36-ms-s-s
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 151
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E7
Birth name variant A7
Birth name (variant A7) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
mr\-C12\-C2-ms-s-sw
ASAE, 38, 217
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E8
Birth name variant A8
Birth name (variant A8) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2A-ms-z:z
. Ramesside Inscriptions, II, 10
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 154-155, 3:E9
Birth name variant A9
Birth name (variant A9) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C12\-C2-N36-ms-s-sw
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 58, 177
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E10
Birth name variant A10
Birth name (variant A10) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C177:N36-(ra:Z1)*ms*s:z
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 19 d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E17
Birth name variant B1
Birth name (variant B1) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn nṯr-ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, divine ruler of Heliopolis
C12\-C2-N36-ms:z-HqA-nTr-iwn
CG 38429-30
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E12
Birth name variant B2
Birth name (variant B2) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn nṯr-ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, divine ruler of Heliopolis
C12\-C2-N36-ms-nTr-HqA-iwn-z:z
ZÄS , 70, 47
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E13
Birth name variant C
Birth name (variant C) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun, merut mi Atum
Ramessu mery Amun, merut mi Atum
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn mrwti-mi-itm
Ramesses, the beloved one of Amun, like Atum
C12\-C2-N36-ms-s-sw-U7:r:t*Z4-mi-C98B
ASAE, 5, 114
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E15
Birth name variant D
Birth name (variant D) of Ramesses II: Ramessu mery Amun, wer menu
Ramessu mery Amun, wer menu
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn we-mnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, great of monuments
mr\-C12\-C2-ms-s-sw-wr:mn:nw*nw*nw
Petrie, Tanis, I, pl. 5
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 156-157, 3:E16

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xix, 2 Ραψακης Rhapsakes Rapsaces 61 years
Eusebius xix, 2 Ραμψης Rhampses Rampses 66 years
Jerome Ramses 66 years
Josephus 97 Aρμεσσης Μιαμουν Armesses Miamun Armesses Miamun 66 years, 2 months
Diodorus 1.47.4 Οσυμανδυας Osymandyas Osymandyas

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 152–157
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 308–312
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 33–113
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 114–120

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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