Ramesses III

Also known as: Rameses III, Ramses III Dynasty XX

The 32 year reign of Ramesses III was marked by political, economic and military problems as foreign invaders flowed into the kingdom. He was murdered in the Harem conspiracy instigated by his second queen, Tiye, who wanted her son Pentawer to succeed Ramesses III instead of the designated prince. The plan failed, and is known to us thanks to the Judicial Papyrus of Turin.

Reign of Ramesses III
AE Chronology1187–1157
von Beckerath1183–1152
Shaw1184–1153
Dodson1185–1153
Malek1184–1153
Arnold1194–1163
Grimal1186–1154
Redford1198–1166
Highest attestationYear 32

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Ramesses III: Ka nakht aa nesyt
Ka nakht aa nesyt
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢ-nsyt
The great bull, great of kingship
E1:D40-aA-sw-i-i-t:Z2
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H1
Horus name variant A
Horus name (variant A) of Ramesses III: Ka nakht mai pehty nakht a neb khepesh haq setetiu
Ka nakht mai pehty nakht a neb khepesh haq setetiu
kꜢ-nḫt mꜢi-pḥti nḫt-Ꜥ nb-ḫpš ẖꜢḳ-sṯtiw
The strong bull and powerful lion, strong-armed, the Lord of strength who has captured the Asiatics
E1:D40-1:l-F9:F9-t*y:D40-n:xt:x*t-D40:Z1:a-nb:F24:D40-M16-q:Z9-D40-S22:t*t-T14-A1*A40-Z2:N25
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H2
Horus name variant B
Horus name (variant B) of Ramesses III: Ka nakht menekh menu, sehotep neb-er-djer em nayef akhut
Ka nakht menekh menu, sehotep neb-er-djer em nayef akhut
kꜢ-nḫt mnḫ-mnw sḥtp-mb-r-ḏr-m-nꜢ(y).f-Ꜣḫwt
The strong bull, splendid of monuments, who has satisfied the Lord of All with his benefactions
E1:D40-mn:n:x-mnx-Y1v-mn:n:nw*nw*nw-A53-Z3-s-Htp:t*p-nb:r-M36:r-A40-m-n:Ai*i:Z2:f-Aa1&Ax&t:Z2
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H3
Horus name variant C
Horus name (variant C) of Ramesses III: Ka nakht sewesekh Kemet, user khepesh, nakht a sema tjehenu
Ka nakht sewesekh Kemet, user khepesh, nakht a sema tjehenu
kꜢ-nḫt swsḫ-kmt wsr-ḫpš nḫt-Ꜥ smꜢ-ṯḥnw
The strong bull who has enlarged Egypt, the one powerful of sword and strong of arm who has slaughtered the Libyans
E1:D40-s-w-z:x-D56-D54-I6:t*O49-wsr-T16A\-2-n:xt:x*t-D40:1:a-z:G3-Aa15:T30-D40:T-H-n:nw*W-T14*A1:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 27 (1)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 20:14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H4
Horus name variant D
Horus name (variant D) of Ramesses III: Ka nakht-a dem henuty,
men ib wer pehty her bawy en qenu
Ka nakht-a dem henuty, men ib wer pehty her bawy en qenu
kꜢ-nḫt-Ꜥ dm-ḥnwti mn-ib wr-pḥti-ḥr-bꜢwi-n-ḳn
The strong-armed bull who has sharpened (his) two horns, decisive and great of strength on the battlefield of bravery
E1-n:M3:x*t-D40:Z1:a-d:Aa15:T30-H-U8:n:W*2-F16:F16-mn:U32*Y1v*(ib:1)-wr:r-F9:t:Z4-D40:D2*Z1-E10&1-W:Z4:N21*1-N-q:n:D40
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 392 (c)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H5
Horus name variant E
Horus name (variant E) of Ramesses III: Ka pehty, sekhem khepesh, nakht-a, neb neru em tau khasut Fenkhu Temehu
Ka pehty, sekhem khepesh, nakht-a, neb neru em tau khasut Fenkhu Temehu
kꜤ-pḥti sḫm-hpš nḫt-Ꜥ nb-nrw-m-tꜢw-ḫꜢswt-fnḫw-ṯmḥw
The powerful bull, potent of sword, strong-armed, lord of dread in the lowlands and the highlands of the Fenkhu-Asiatics and the Temehu-Libyans
E1-F9*F9:t*Z4:D40-sxm-M:D40-xpS:n:M3:x*t-D40:Z1:a-nb:n:r-i-nr:D40-M:N17:N17:N17-N25:t*Z2-f:x:V12:D40-ti-m-H-T14-A1
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, II, plate 79 (1)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 49:14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H6
Horus name variant F
Horus name (variant F) of Ramesses III: Sekhem pehty, hed hefnu, dekh na pehu su, demedj (kher) tjebwyef
Sekhem pehty, hed hefnu, dekh na pehu su, demedj (kher) tjebwyef
sḫm-pḥti hd-ḥfnw dḫ-nꜢ-pḥw-sw-dmḏ-(ẖr)-ṯbwi.f
Powerful of strength, who has attacked hundreds of thousands, overthrown those who have attacked him, and gathered (them) (under) his sandals
sxm-Aa15:D40-F9-t:y-D40:O4A:d-a:D40-I8*I8*I8:Z2-d:x-A15:D40:n-G4&F22-D54:z-S23:d-S33*S33:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 33 (10)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 30:14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H7
Horus name variant G
Horus name (variant G) of Ramesses III: Asha menu
Asha menu
ꜤšꜢ-mnw
With many monuments
I1:t:Z2-mn:n:nw*nw*nw
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 393 (g)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H8
Horus name variant H
Horus name (variant H) of Ramesses III: Neb habu-sed mi Tatenen
Neb habu-sed mi Tatenen
nb-ḥꜢbu-sd-mi-tꜢṯnn
Possessor of Sed festivals like Tatenen
nb:O23F-Z3-mi-C18C
The Epigraphic Survey, The Excavation of Medinet Habu, III (OIP 54), plate 35 B
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H9
Horus name variant I
Horus name (variant I) of Ramesses III: An her serekh mi sa Aset
An her serekh mi sa Aset
Ꜥn-ḥr-srḫ-mi-zꜢ-Ꜣst
Beautiful on the throne like the son of Isis
a:n:D6-D2:Z1-s-r:x:O33-mi-H8:Z1-st-t:H8
The Epigraphic Survey, The Excavation of Medinet Habu, III (OIP 54), plate 35 C
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H11
Horus name variant J
Horus name (variant J) of Ramesses III: Bity wer menu, wer biaut, meh Ipet-sut her renef
Bity wer menu, wer biaut, meh Ipet-sut her renef
biti-wr-mnw wr-biꜢwt mḥ-iptswt-hr-rn.f
The reigning king, great of monuments and wonders, who has filled Karnak with his renown
S3-i-A20-mn:n:nw*nw*nw-wr:r-U16:t*Z2-V22:Y1-i-p:t-st-3:O49-Aa15:mn:nw*nw*nw-D2:Z1-r:n:V10:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, III, plate 32 A
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 164-165, 2:H14
Horus name variant K
Horus name (variant K) of Ramesses III: Saa khau mi akhty webenef, ankh Rekhyet
Saa khau mi akhty webenef, ankh Rekhyet
sꜤꜢ-ḫꜤw-mi-Ꜣḫti wbn.f-Ꜥnḫ-rḫyt
Who has magnified his appearances like the One of the Two Horizons when he rises, the life of the Rekhyet people
z:aA:a:Y1-xa:3-mi-N27:t-y:pr-W*b:n-N8:f-anx:t-G24A:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, III, plate 32 A
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:H15
Horus name variant L
Horus name (variant L) of Ramesses III: An en nesu mi Itemu, mer
tuef abtuef mi hem en Ra
An en nesu mi Itemu, mer tuef abtuef mi hem en Ra
Ꜥn-m-nsw-mi-itm mri.tw.f-Ꜣb.tw.f-mi-ḥm-n-rꜤ
Beautiful as king like Atum, he is loved and wished for like the majesty of Ra
a:n:D6-m-sw-t-A42B-mi-A304G-U7\:r:W*t-A2-t&w:f-R15-b-W-A53-t&w:f-mi-i-U36-Z1-A42-S3-ra:Z1-A40
The Epigraphic Survey, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak, II, plate 122 (a)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:H17
Nebty name
Nebty name of Ramesses III: Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜤbw-sd-mi-tꜢ-ṯnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23F-Z3-mi-C18C
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:N1a
Nebty name variant A
Nebty name (variant A) of Ramesses III: Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜤbw-sd-mi-tꜢṯnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23F-Z3-mi-i-N16:T:n:n-C18C
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (bottom)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:N1b
Nebty name variant B
Nebty name (variant B) of Ramesses III: User pehty mi itef Mentju, seksek pedjut 9, der em tasen
User pehty mi itef Mentju, seksek pedjut 9, der em tasen
wsr-pḥti-mi-it.f-mnṯw sksk-pḏt-dr-m-tꜢ.sn
Powerful of strength like his father Montu, who has annihilated the Nine Bows and repelled (them) in their (own) countries
wsr-s-r:D40-F9:t*y:D40-mi-i-i-t:f-A40*1:f-mn:n:T-w-A40-s-V116-s-V116-T30:D40-pD:t*3:3*3-d:r:D40-Aa15:N17:Z1*N21-z:n:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 37:10-11
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:N2
Nebty name variant C
Nebty name (variant C) of Ramesses III: Ir Maat en pesdjet, seheb rauper Ra neb
Ir Maat en pesdjet, seheb rauper Ra neb
iri-mꜢꜤt-n-psḏt sḥꜢb-rꜢw-pr-mi-kꜢw-rꜤ-nb
Who has accomplished Maat for the Ennead and made (their) temples festive daily
ir:t:Aa11:n-N10:t-nTr-Z3-s*H*b:W3-r:2:pr:2-Z3:Z1-O49:O49-Z3-Aa15:kA*1:Z2-ra*Z1:nb
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 314:8-9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:N3
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Ramesses III: User renput mi Itemu
User renput mi Itemu
wsr-rnpwt-mi-itm
Rich in years like Atum
wsr-rnp*rnp*rnp-mi-A45
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:G1a
Golden Horus name variant A
Golden Horus name (variant A) of Ramesses III: An tjel em mesu netjeru netjeriut qab aabetsen
An tjel em mesu netjeru netjeriut qab aabetsen
Ꜥn-ṯl-m-mswt-nṯrw-nṯrwt ḳꜢb-ꜤꜢbt.sn
Beautiful and mighty, as the (very) progeny of gods and goddesses, who has doubled their offerings
a:n:D6-U33-n:Z2:r*Z1:D40-m-ms-nTr-Z3-nTr-t:r:2-i-i-t:H8-I12:3-q&b-F47:Y1-M19-W3:ra-z:n:Z2
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 314:9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:G3
Golden Horus name variant B
Golden Horus name (variant B) of Ramesses III: Netjeri em peref em khet suhet iqeret sebqet en Hor-akhty
Netjeri em peref em khet suhet iqeret sebqet en Hor-akhty
nṯri-m-pri.f-m-ẖt swḥt-iḳrt-sbḳt-n-ḥrꜢḫti
Divine as soon as he emerged from the womb, the excellent and precious egg of Harakhty
nTr-t:r:y-Y1:Aa15:pr*(r:D54)-f:Aa15:X-t:Z1:F51B-s-w-H-t:H8-i-q:r:t-Y1:s*b*(q:t)*A53-G5&N19
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1-2)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 37:11
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:G2
Golden Horus name variant C
Golden Horus name (variant C) of Ramesses III: Qen neb khepesh ir tash er meref emsa kheftiuf
Qen neb khepesh ir tash er meref emsa kheftiuf
ḳnw nb-ḫpšwi iri-tꜢš-r-mri.f-m-sꜢ-ḫftiw.f
The brave one, possessor of a strong arm, who has made (his) border as he wished, behind his enemies
q:n:D40-nb:xpS:xpS-y:W-ir:t:N37-Z9*N21:r-U7:r:f-Aa15:Aa18*1-x:f-A14A:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 27 (2)
. Ramesside Inscriptions, V, 20:15–16
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:G4
Throne name
Throne name of Ramesses III: User Maat Ra, mery Amun
User Maat Ra, mery Amun
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-imn
Strong is the Maat of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-mAat-N36-i-mn:n
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Ramesses III: User Maat Ra, mery Amun
User Maat Ra, mery Amun
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-imn
Strong is the Maat of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-C10A-i-mn:n:N36
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:T2
Birth name
Birth name of Ramesses III: Ramessu heqa Iunu
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-s-s-HqA-iwn
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:E1
Birth name variant A
Birth name (variant A) of Ramesses III: Ramessu heqa Iunu
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-z:z-HqA-q-iwn
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 166-167, 2:E2
Birth name variant B
Birth name (variant B) of Ramesses III: Ramessu heqa Iunu
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-z:z-HqA-iwn
Passim

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Herodotus 121.1 Pαμψινιτον Rhampsinitos Rhampsinitus
Diodorus 1.62.5 Pεμφις Rhemphis Rhemphis

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 164–167
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 312–316
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 156–178
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 127–130

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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