|Reign of Semerkhet|
|Turin Canon||63 (years?)|
From the hieroglyphic records
From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity
|Africanus i, 7||Σεμεμψης||Semempses||Semempsis||18 years|
|Eusebius i, 7||Σεμεμψης||Semempses||Semempses||18 years|
|Eratosthenes 5||Πεμφως||Pemphos||Pemphus||18 years|
Beckerath, J. Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 40–41
Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 376–378
Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 11–14
Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 26–27
The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.
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