Sneferu

Also known as: Snefru, Snofru Dynasty IV

According to Manetho, Sneferu ruled for 29 years, but the Turin King-list only list 24 years. It is now known that he ruled at least three years past the highest attested dating of 24 years, he probably ruled in excess of 30 years, which would go a long way to explain how he managed to have three pyramids built.

Reign of Sneferu
AE Chronology2543–2510
von Beckerath2614–2579
Shaw2613–2589
Dodson2520–2470
Allen2575–2551
Malek2573–2549
Arnold2600–2555
Redford2649–2609
Turin Canon24 years
Manetho (Africanus)29 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Sneferu: Neb Maat
Neb Maat
nb-mꜢꜤt
The Lord of Maat
nb:U4-t
Cairo Museum JE 38568
relief from Wadi Maghara, Sinai
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Sneferu: Neb Maat Sneferu
Neb Maat Sneferu
nb-mꜢꜤt snfr-w
The Lord of Maat, has made me perfect
nb:U1-Aa11:t-s-nfr-r:w
Schott, Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 1956, 67, fig. 5
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:E1
Nebty name
Nebty name of Sneferu: Neb Maat
Neb Maat
nb-mꜢꜤt
Lord of Maat
nb:U4-t
Cairo Museum JE 38568
relief from Wadi Maghara, Sinai
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Sneferu: Bik-nebu
Bik-nebu
bik-nbw
Golden falcon
G5:nbw
Cairo Museum JE 38568
relief from Wadi Maghara, Sinai
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:G
Throne name
Throne name of Sneferu: Sneferu
Sneferu
s-nfr-w
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-r:f-w
Tomb of Nefermaat II (Giza G7060)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 17a
Throne name variant
Throne name of Sneferu: Sneferu*
Sneferu*
n-nfr-w
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-f:r-w
Saqqara king list 43
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:E4
Throne name variant
Throne name of Sneferu: Sneferu*
Sneferu*
s-nfr-w
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-w
Abydos king list 20
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:E3
Throne name variant
Throne name of Sneferu: Snefer..*
Snefer..*
s-nfr..
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-//-G7
Royal Canon of Turin 4.6
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:9
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:E5
Throne name variant
Throne name of Sneferu: Sneferu*
Sneferu*
s-nfr-w
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-r-w
Karnak king list 2
Cairo Museum JE 38568
relief from Wadi Maghara, Sinai
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 2a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 52-53, 1:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Sneferu: Sneferu*
Sneferu*
s-nfr-w
The one who has been made perfect
s-nfr-f:r-W
Westcar Papyrus, 6.19

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 1 Σωρις Soris Soris 29 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 52–53
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 386–389
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 61–71
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 35

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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