Epithets and Titles

Some of the most common titles and epithets of the pharaohs with their hieroglyphs and translation. This is by no means an extensive list, but rather a collection of the most often used forms. In most cases, there are numerous variants meaning the same thing, but spelled with different or additional signs.

The fivefold titulary

HieroglyphsDescription
Horus Horus name
Horus
ḥr
The Two Ladies The Two Ladies
Nebty
nbty
Golden Falcon Golden Falcon
Nub tawy
nb-tꜢwy
King of Upper and Lower Egypt The Dual King, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, or, simply King
Nesut bity
nswt-bity
King of Upper Egypt Son of Ra, birth-name
Sa Ra
zꜢ-rꜤ


Commonly used titles

(appearing before the name)

HieroglyphsDescription
King of Upper Egypt King, King of Upper Egypt
Nesut
n-sw-t
The Good God The good god (only used after the king's death)
Netjer nefer
nṯr-nfr
Lord of the Two Lands Lord of the Two Lands
Neb tawy
nb-tꜢwy
Lord of Apparitions/Crowns Lord of Apparitions/Crowns
Neb khau
nb-ḫꜢw
Strong bull Strong bull
Ka nakht (often part of the Horus name)
kꜢ-nḫt


Commonly used epithets

(appearing after the name)

HieroglyphsDescription
Life everlasting Life everlasting
Ankh djeta
Ꜥnḫ-ḏt-tꜢ
Chosen of Ra Chosen of Ra
Setep en Ra
stp-n-rꜤ
True of Voice True of Voice
Maa kheru, (the king's soul judged to be morally righteous)
mꜢꜤ-ḫrw
LPH Life, Prosperity, Health
Ankh wedja seneb
Ꜥnx-wḏꜢ-snb


The family of the king

HieroglyphsDescription
The King's mother hieroglyphs The King's mother
Mut Nesu
mwt-nsw
The King's father hieroglyphs The King's father
It Nesu
it-nsw
The King's son hieroglyphs The King's son
Sa Nesu
sꜢ-nsw
The King's daugher hieroglyphs The King's daughter
Sat Nesu
sꜢt-nsw
The King's brother hieroglyphs The King's brother
Sen Nesu
sn-nsw
The King's sister hieroglyphs The King's sister
Senet Nesu
snt-nsw
The King's wife hieroglyphs The King's wife
Hemet Nesu
hmt-nsw
The crown-prince hieroglyphs The crown-prince
Inep
inp
The hereditary prince hieroglyphs The hereditary prince
Repat
rpꜤt


End of page
Kinglists
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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