The Dynasties of Manetho

The concept of dynasties—the grouping of a sequence of rulers based on family—originated with Aegyptiaca, and is still in use to this day. This is an attempt to consolidate (and comment) on the dynasties of Manetho.

Mythological kings

Neither Africanus nor Eusebius preserve any names or dates for the mythological era. According to Syncellus, the Book of Sothis was written by Manetho, though modern scholars consider it a much later forgery, used by Panodorus of Alexandria.

The lists begin with a number of mythological kings that include Gods, demigods and spirits of the dead. The Gods reigned 11,985 years. The only original number presented in Table 1 is the 9,000 years reign of Hephaistos. The incredible time-spans presented by Manetho was considered impossibly high by Christian authors, so a numerical contortion was necessary whereby it was assumed that Manetho's figure was referring to solar days, not years. That meant that the 9,000 years was converted into 29.5-day months, yielding a total of 265,500 days, or 727.75 years. The formula: (Panodorus figure) × 365 / 29.5 = original Sothis figure.

Table 1: Gods in the Book of Sothis
Name Original Panodorus Egyptian equivalent
First Dynasty (Gods)
1 Hephaistos 9,000 727 3/4 Ptah
2 Helios 992 80 1/6 Ra
3 Agathadaemon 700 56 7/12 Good spirit?
4 Kronos 501 40 1/12 Khnum
5 Oriris & Isis 433 35 Oriris & Isis
6 Typhon 359 29 Set
TOTAL 11,985 969
Second and Third Dynasties (Demigods)
7 Horus 100 25
8 Ares 92 23 Anhur
9 Anubis 68 17
10 Herakles 60 15
11 Apollo 100 25
12 Ammon 120 30 Amun
13 Tithoes 108 27 Tutu
15 Sosos 128 32
16 Zeus 80 20 Amun?
TOTAL 12,841 1,183

The first column of the badly fragmented Turin King List contain seven of nine partial names of Gods: Geb, Osiris, Set (200+x years), Horus (300 years), Thoth (7726 years), Ma'at (700+x years), Haroeris. The partial total number of years reigned by the Gods is x7718 years. This is followed by a number of sacred spirits. Then follows a second group of Gods, including Set, Thoth, and Horus. The mythological section of the king list concludes with two large totals: 13420+x years, and 23200+x years. Make of that what you will.

Old Chronicle:
Table 2: Gods in the Old Chronicle
Name Reign Remarks
1 Hephaistos Infinite because he shines by night and day
2 Helios 30,000 years the son of Hephaistos
3-15 Kronos + 12 Gods 3984 years and the remaining 12 gods who succeeded him
16-23 8 demigods 217 years
  • Diodorus (Diod. 1.44.1)

    Some of them [the priests] give the story that at first gods and heroes ruled Egypt for a little less than 18,000 years, the last of the gods to rule being Horus, the son of Isis; and mortals have been kings over their country, they say, for a little less than 5,000 years down to the 180th Olympiad, the time when we visited Egypt and the king was Ptolemy, who took the name of The New Dionysus.1

Mortal kings

Mortal kings are the historical rulers who ruled Egypt, while legendary or mythic kings are characters from folklore and mythology with symbolic significance. Both types of kings play distinct roles in society and history, with one based on verifiable reality and the other on mythology and legends.


Dynasty 1

The First Dynasty of 8 kings.

Table 3: The First Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Μηνης Θινίτης 1
Eusebius Μηνης Θινίτης
Armenian
Menes of Thinis
Menes of Thinis
Menes Thinites
62
60
30
2 Africanus Aθωθις
Eusebius Aθωθις
Armenian
Athothis
Athothis
Athothis
57
27
27
3 Africanus Κενκενης
Eusebius Κενκενης
Armenian
Kenkenes
Kenkenes
Cencenes
31
39
39
4 Africanus Ουενεφης
Eusebius Ουενεφης
Armenian
Ouenephes
Ouenephes
Vavenephis
23
42
42
5 Africanus Ουσαφαιδoς
Eusebius Ουσαφαης
Armenian
Ousaphaidos
Ousaphais
Usaphais
20
20
20
6 Africanus Μιεβιδoς
Eusebius Nιεβαης
Armenian
Miebidos
Niebais
Niebais
26
26
26
7 Africanus Σεμεμψης
Eusebius Σεμεμψης
Armenian
Semempses
Semempses
Mempses
18
18
18
8 Africanus Βιηνεχης
Eusebius Ουβιενθης
Armenian
Bienekhes
Oubienthes
Vibenthis
26
26
26
TOTAL Africanus 253 years2
Eusebius 252 years3
Armenian 252 years4

1 Gardiner 1961: 430 n.1 (Manetho uses the adjective Thinite; the corresponding Thinis is not found in Greek, but is demanded by the Egyptian original. Near Girga North of Abydos.)

2 The correct total is 263 years, not 253. The culculation error was probably not made by Africanus, but introduced by a later copyist.

3 The correct total is 258 years, not 252. The error was probably not made by Eusebius, but by a later copyist.

4 The correct total is 228 years, it is likely that an Armenian copyist carelessly copied a 30 instead of a 60 for Menes.

  • 450 BC: Herodotus (Hdt. 2.99)

    The priests told me that Min was the first king of Egypt, and that first he separated Memphis from the Nile by a dam. All the river had flowed close under the sandy mountains on the Libyan side, but Min made the southern bend of it, which begins about twelve and one half miles above Memphis, by damming the stream, thereby drying up the ancient channel, and carried the river by a channel so that it flowed midway between the hills.
    Then, when this first king Min had made dry land of what he thus cut off, he first founded in it that city which is now called Memphis, and outside of it he dug a lake from the river to its north and west; and secondly, he built in it the great and most noteworthy temple of Hephaestus [Ptah]. After him came 330 kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll.

  • 275 BC: Manetho

    ...After the spirits of the dead, the demigods, the first royal line is numbered at eight kings. Known for his strong leadership, King Menes was killed by a hippopotamus. His son Athothis built the palace at Memphis, practiced medicine and wrote books on anatomy. During the reign of Ouenephes, a severe famine gripped the land, and he also had pyramids built near Kochome/Cho [Saqqara?]. There were several omens and a massive plague during the reign of Semempses.

  • 60 BC: Diodorus

    (Diod. 1.45.1) After the gods the first king of Egypt, according to the priests, was Menas.

    (Diod. 1.45.3) And it is said that the descendants of this king, 52 in number all told, ruled in unbroken succession more than a thousand and forty years, but that in their reigns nothing occurred that was worthy of record.

  • 95 CE: Josephus (Ant. VIII 6.2)

    Now Solomon the King was at this time engaged in building these cities. But if any enquire why all the Kings of Egypt, from Menes who built Memphis, and was many years earlier than our fore-father Abraham, until Solomon, where the interval was more than 1,300 years, were called Pharaohs, and took it from one Pharaoh that lived after the Kings of that interval, I think it necessary to inform them of it: and this in order to cure their ignorance, and to make the occasion of that name manifest. Pharaoh in the Egyptian tongue signifies a King. But I suppose they made use of other names from their childhood: but when they were made Kings, they changed them into the name which in their own tongue denoted their authority ..... I suppose also that Herodotus of Halicarnassus, when he said there were 330 Kings of Egypt after Menes, who built Memphis, did therefore not tell us their names, because they were in common called Pharaohs ..... As for my self, I have discovered from our own Books, that after Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, no other King of Egypt did any longer use that name.....

Remarks

The eight kings from the archaeological records of the First Dynasty align with Manetho and also with the Turin king list. The reigns of the first four kings differ, while the last four are identical, suggesting corrupted information in one (or both?) of the epitomes used, unless the error was caused by Syncellus or his copyists. Interestingly, the names are the opposite; the names of the first four are identical, while the last four differ.

It seems unlikely that both Africanus and Eusebius made simple errors in adding up the reigns. Instead, the discrepancies in the totals are easily explained by errors made by later copyists.

End of section

Dynasty 2

Africanus: The Second Dynasty of 9 kings of Thinis.
Eusebius: The Second Dynasty of 9 kings.

Table 4: The Second Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Βoηθoς
Eusebius Βωχος
Armenian
Boethos
Bochos
Bochus
38

2 Africanus Καιεχως
Eusebius Χωος
Armenian
Kaiekhos
Choös
Cechous
39

3 Africanus Βίνωθρις
Eusebius Βίοφις
Armenian
Binothris
Biophis
Biophis
47

4 Africanus Τλας
Eusebius
Armenian
Tlas

17

5 Africanus Σεθενης
Eusebius
Armenian
Sethenes

41

6 Africanus Χαιρης
Eusebius
Armenian
Khaires

17

7 Africanus Nεφερχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Nephercheres

25

8 Africanus Σεσωχρις
Eusebius Σεσωχρις
Armenian
Sesochris
Sesochris
Sesochris
48
48
48
9 Africanus Χενερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Kheneres

30

Total for Dynasty 2 Africanus 302 years.
Eusebius 297 years.
Armenian 297 years.
Total for Dynasties 1-2 Africanus 555 years.
Eusebius 549 years.
  • Manetho

    The Egyptian Second Dynasty was ruled by nine kings (from Thinis). During Boethos' rule, a chasm appeared in Bubastis, killing numerous people. The bulls Apis at Memphis and Meneus in Heliopolis, as well as the Mendesian goat, were considered as gods during Kaiechos' rule. Binothris granted women royal privileges. For eleven days under Nephercheres' reign, the Nile River flowed with honey. Sesochris was a big man, five cubits tall and three cubits wide.

The Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt is shrouded in obscurity, making it one of the most enigmatic chapters in the country's history. The scarcity of evidence and information concerning this period is notably reflected by the divergent accounts found in various king lists.

Remarks

The nine kings are the same number as in the Turin king list, although the Abydos Canon only has six, while the Saqqara Canon has eight. The individual reigns of Africanus add up to 302 years, while Eusebius’ total is 297. Interestingly, Africanus and Eusebius both summarise the first two dynasties, reminiscent of the Turin King List summations, which does not feasture a summation at this point.

The total of Africanus First and Second dynasties are stated as 555 years (253+302), however, the actual total for the individual kings is 565 (263+302), due to the 10-year discrepancy from the First Dynasty. According to Eusebius, the total for the two dynasties is 549 (252+297), but the individual reigns cannot be counted as there is obviously a lacuna in Second Dynasty records of his epitome of Aegyptiaca. The Armenian translation does not include the summation for the first two dynasties of Eusebius.

End of section

Dynasty 3

Africanus The Third Dynasty of 9 kings of Memphis.
Eusebius The Third Dynasty of 8 kings of Memphis.
Armenian The Third Dynasty of 8 kings of Memphis.

Table 5: The Third Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Nεχερoφης
Eusebius Νεχερωχις
Armenian
Necherophes
Necherochis
Necherochis
28

2 Africanus Toσoρθρoς
Eusebius Σεσορθος
Armenian
Tosorthros
Sesorthos
Sosorthus
29

3 Africanus Tυρεις
Eusebius
Armenian
Tyreis

7

4 Africanus Mεσωχρις
Eusebius
Armenian
Mesochris

17

5 Africanus Σωυφις
Eusebius
Armenian
Soyphis

16

6 Africanus Toσερτασις
Eusebius
Armenian
Tosertasis

19

7 Africanus Aχης
Eusebius
Armenian
Aches

42

8 Africanus Σηφoνρις
Eusebius
Armenian
Sephouris

30

9 Africanus Kερφερης
Kerpheres 26
Total for Dynasty 3 Africanus 214 years.
Eusebius 198 years.
Armenian 197 years.
Total for dynasties 1-3 Africanus 769 years.
Eusebius 747 years.
  • Manetho

    In the reign of Necherophes the Libyans revolted against Egypt, but when the moon unexpectedly grew in size, they surrendered in terror. Sesorthus was called Asklepios by the Egyptians because of his medical skill. The inventor of the art of building with hewn stone, he also pursued the craft of writing. The remaining six accomplished nothing worthy of mention.

Remarks

Eusebius only give details of two kings, noting that “The remaining six kings achieved nothing worthy of mention”, and the Armenian version give no total for the first three dynasties. The nine kings of Manetho’s Third Dynasty does not agree with the archaeological record, nor with the main New Kingdom king lists, which only support 4-5 kings reigning for less than 100 years, not the seemingly inflated total of 214 years of Africanus.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the First through Third dynasties amount to 769 years (253+302+214), however the correct sum is 779 (263+302+214).

End of section

Dynasty 4

Africanus The Fourth dynasty of 8 kings of Memphis, from another line.
Eusebius The Fourth dynasty of 17 kings of Memphis, from another royal line.
Armenian The Fourth Dynasty of 17 kings of Memphis from a different royal line.

Table 6: The Fourth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign Pharaoh
1 Africanus Σωρις
Eusebius
Armenian
Soris

29

Snoferu
2 Africanus Σoυφις
Eusebius
Armenian
Souphis

63

Khufu
3 Africanus Σoυφις
Eusebius Σoυφις
Armenian
Souphis
Souphis
Suphis
66

Khafra
4 Africanus Mενχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Mesochris

63

Menkaura
5 Africanus Ρατoισης
Eusebius
Armenian
Rhatoises

25

Djedefra
6 Africanus Bιχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Bikheres

22

Baufra
7 Africanus Σεβερχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Seberkheres

7

Shepseskaf
8 Africanus Θαμφθις
Eusebius
Armenian
Thamphthis

9

Thamphthis
Total for Dynasty 4 Africanus 277 years. MSS A gives 274. Items add to 284.
Eusebius 448 years.
Armenian 448 years.
Total for dynasties 1-4 Africanus 1046 years.
Eusebius 1195 years.

Remarks

The eight kings is the same number of kings present in the Turin king list, but the Abydos Canon only have six, while the Saqqara Canon gives nine. This is a clear indication that the New Kingdom records of the first dynasties were corrupted, which would explain the confused records in Manetho a thousand years later. The sum for the individual reigns amount to 284 years, not 277 as stated by Africanus (emending the 274 years of MS A to 277, following MS B).

According to Africanus, the first four dynasties ruled for a total of 1046 years (253 + 302 + 214 + 277); however, the actual number for the individual reigns is 1063 (263 + 302 + 214 + 284).

End of section

Dynasty 5

Africanus The Fifth Dynasty of 8 kings of Elephantine.
Eusebius The Fifth Dynasty of 31 kings of Elephantine.
Armenian The Fifth Dynasty of 31 kings of Elephantine.

Table 7: The Fifth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Ουσερχερης
Eusebius Οθoης
Armenian Othius
Ouserkheres
Othoes
Othius
28

2 Africanus Σεφρης
Eusebius
Armenian
Sephres

13

3 Africanus Νεφερχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Nepherkheres

20

4 Africanus Σισιρης
Eusebius Φιωψ*
Armenian Phiops*
Sisires
Phiops
Phiops
7
94
94
5 Africanus Χερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Kheres

20

6 Africanus Ραθουρης
Eusebius
Armenian
Rhathoures

44

7 Africanus Μενχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Menkheres

9

8 Africanus Τανχερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Tankheres

44

9 Africanus Οννος
Eusebius
Armenian
Onnos

33

Total for Dynasty 5 Africanus 248 years. Sum of items is 218 years.
Eusebius [100 years.]
Armenian -
Total for dynasties 1-5 Africanus 1294 years.
Eusebius 1295 years.
* Phiops belong to the Sixth Dynasty.

Remarks

Eusebius’ fifth dynasty kings actually belong to the sixth, and Eusebius simply added 100 years for this dynasty in the total with the previous dynasties. This suggests that the epitomist misread, misunderstood, or accidentally skipped to the subsequent dynasty while copying the text.

The summation have 8 kings ruling for 248 years, however, this is contradicted by listing 9 kings – the same number of kings present in Turin king list. The Abydos- and Saqqara- canons each contain 8 kings, albeit with differing names. The reign total sum amount to 218 years, not 248 as stated. According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Fifth dynasties amount to 1294 years (1046+248), however the correct sum is 1281 (1063+218).

These differences is a clear indication that even the New Kingdom sources were corrupted.

End of section

Dynasty 6

Africanus The Sixth Dynasty of 6 kings of Memphis.
Eusebius The Sixth Dynasty.
Armenian The Sixth Dynasty.

Table 8: The Sixth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Οθοης Othoes 30
2 Africanus Φιος Phios 53
3 Africanus Μεθουσουφις Methusouphis 7
4 Africanus Φιωψ Phiops 94
5 Africanus Μενφεσουφις Menthesouphis 1
6 Africanus Νιτωκρις Nitokris 12
? Eusebius Νιτωκρις*
Armenian
Nitokris
Nitocris

Total for Dynasty 6 Africanus 203 years.
Eusebius 203 years.
Armenian 203 years.
Total for dynasties 1-6 Africanus 1497 years.
Eusebius 1498 years.
* No mention of number of kings, nor the capital. Only names Nitocris as part of the Sixth dynasty, not her position, nor years reigned.

Remarks

The sum of the individual reigns is 197, however, Phiops “whose reign began at the age of 6, ruled continuously up to his hundredth year”, was calculated as 100 instead of 94. The Turin king list detail 13 sequential kings of the Sixth Dynasty without any indication of a dynastic break between the Sixth and Eleventh dynasties. At the same place, the Abydos Canon contain the names of 23 kings, while the Saqqara Canon only have 4. This further reinforce that the New Kingdom records were corrupted, or at the very least, incomplete.

According to Africanus, the total sum for the kings of the First through Sixth dynasties amount to 1497 years (1294+203), however the correct sum is 1478 (1281+197). The summation for the same six dynasties in the Turin king list give a total of 955 years, and only 13 kings from Teti to the Ninth Dynasty kings.

The administrative records from the First Intermediate Period appear to have suffered greatly, whether as a result of conflict or just bad luck, as even Manetho failed to piece together the disjointed parts into a cohesive chronology. However, it is impossible to rule out that an epitomist misinterpreted the whole section of the narrative and caused mayhem.

End of section

Dynasty 7

Africanus

Seventh dynasty of 70 Memphite kings, who reigned 70 days
Ἑβδόμη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων ό, οί ἐβασίλευσαν ἡμέρας οʹ
Evdómi dynasteía Memfitón vasiléon 70, oí evasílefsan iméras 70.

Eusebius

Seventh Dynasty of five Memphite kings, who reigned 75 days
Ἑβδόμη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων πέντε, οί ἐβασίλευσαν ἡμέρας οεʹ
Evdómi dynasteía Memfitón vasiléon pénte, oí evasílefsan iméras 75.

Armenian Eusebius

Seventh Dynasty of five Memphite kings reigned for 75 years.
Septima dynastia Memphitarum regum V, qui annis LXXV dominati sunt.

Remarks

The huge number of kings and dynasties for the First Intermediate Period suggest that a redactor of an Epitome misunderstood and distorted the summation(s) for the rival kings of Memphis and Herakleopolis that followed the Sixth Dynasty. The scarce archaeological record seems to only support one Memphite dynasty, and one Herakleopolite dynasty. The '70 kings ruled for 70 days' is of course an impossibility, and is most likely a corruption of a summation or narrative.

End of section

Dynasty 8

Africanus The Eighth Dynasty of 27 kings of Memphis for 146 years.
Eusebius The Eighth Dynasty of 5 kings of Memphis for 100 years.
Armenian The Eighth Dynasty of 5 kings of Memphis for 100 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Africanus Total for dynasties 1-8: 1639 years.
Eusebius Total for dynasties 1-8: 1598 years.

Remarks

The preserved summation “together with the aforementioned years (1294), there are 1639 years for these eight dynasties” is incorrectly calculated. The erroneous sum of Africanus for those eight dynasties comes to 1643 (1497+146), curiously 4 years more than the preserved numbers, and ignores the Seventh Dynasty completely. Furthermore, the correct sum for the first eight dynasties come to 1630 (1484+146), more evidence of distorted records. Like the other summations for the FIP, the 27 kings recorded in the heading for this dynasty is probably corrupted too.

End of section

Dynasty 9

Africanus The Ninth Dynasty of 19 kings of Herakleopolis for 409 years
Eusebius The Ninth Dynasty of 4 kings of Herakleopolis for 100 years.
Armenian The Ninth Dynasty of 4 kings of Herakleopolis for 100 years.

Table 9: The Ninth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Aχθoης
Eusebius Aχθωης
Armenian
Achthoes
Achthoes
Ochthois


Remarks

The fact that two Herakleopolitan dynasties only contain the name of one king suggests a lacuna. There was probably some indication that the records had been corrupted or lost, which the epitomists mistook for another dynasty. The difference in the number of kings and years between Africanus and Eusebius for dynasties 9 and 10 is another clear indication that their epitomes differed substantially.

End of section

Dynasty 10

Africanus The Tenth Dynasty of 19 kings of Herakleopolis for 185 years
Eusebius The Tenth Dynasty of 19 kings of Herakleopolis for 185 years.
Armenian The Tenth Dynasty of 19 kings of Herakleopolis for 185 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Remarks

It seems likely that the epitomist(s) misunderstood the summation for the Herakleopolitan dynasty, and mistook it for a separate dynasty. Africanus give 19 + 19 kings for the two dynasties, while Eusebius give 4 + 19 kings. The number of years also differ, and It stands to reason that the an epitomist misinterpreted a summation of the Herakleopolitan Dynasty and multiplied it as a new dynasty, substantiated by the same number of kings (19) for both dynasties, with no names mentioned.

End of section

Dynasty 11

Africanus The Eleventh Dynasty of 16 kings of Diospolis for 43 years
Eusebius The Eleventh Dynasty of 16 kings of Diospolis for 43 years.
Armenian The Eleventh Dynasty of 16 kings of Diospolis for 43 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Remarks

Incomplete, added at later date.

End of section

Between dynasties

Africanus In succession to these [Eleventh Dynasty kings], Ammenemes ruled for 16 years.
Eusebius In succession to these [Eleventh Dynasty kings], Ammenemes ruled for 16 years.
Armenian In succession to these [Eleventh Dynasty kings], Ammenemes ruled for 16 years.

Table 10: One king between the Eleventh and Twelfth dynasties
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Aμμενεμης
Eusebius Aμμενεμης
ArmenianAmmenemes
Ammenemes
Ammenemes
Ammenemes
16
16
16

Africanus Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 70 days.
Eusebius Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 79 days.
Armenian Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years.

Remarks

Sixteen kings ruling 43 years is clearly another error by the redactor of the epitome. Yet another indication is that Ammenemes was king Ammenemes was not included in the Eleventh or Twelfth dynasties, but rather as an intermediary between the two. Africanus presents a summation of Manetho’s first book at this point, stating that a total of 192 kings had ruled the kingdom for 2300 years and 70 days. These numbers are problematic. If we add the number of kings recorded in each dynasty heading, including the 70 kings of the Seventh Dynasty, the total is 200. If we count the individual kings recorded, the total is 201. The total sum of years for the individual kings is 2259, while the total from the dynasty headings is 2280.

Table 10a: Number of kings per dynasty and total reigns
Africanus Eusebius Armenian
Dyn. Kings Reigns Total Kings Reigns Total Kings Reigns
1 8 253 253 8 252 252 8 258
2 9 302 555 9 297 549 9 297
3 9 214 769 8 198 747 8 197
4 8 277 1046 17 448 1195 17 448
5 8 248 1294 31 100 1295 31
6 6 203 1497 203 1498 203
7 70 5 5 75
8 27 146 1639 5 100 1598 5 100
9 19 409 2048 4 100 1698 4 100
10 19 185 2233 19 185 1883 19 185
11 16 43 2276 16 43 1926 16 43
* 1 16 2292 1 16 1942 1 16
Tot 192 2300 192 2300 192 2300
Sum 200 2292 123 1942 123 1922

According to modern Egyptology, some 90 kings reigned from the First through Eleventh dynasties (approximately 1100 years). The figures by Africanus for dynasties 7-10 are in all likelihood based on a misunderstanding of the text. It is clear that the Seventh Dynasty is a mistake. The line of kings of Memphis continued rule past the Sixth Dynasty - this could be the 27 kings of Africanus’ Eighth Dynasty. According to Africanus, the next two dynasties were Herakleopolitan, both with 19 kings. It seems probable that the redactor mistook the summation of the Eighth Dynasty and erroneously created a duplicate of the dynasty. The corresponding dynasty in the Turin king list holds 18 kings (5.18-6.9).

Disregarding the duplicated dynasties, Africanus recorded 49 kings from the First through Sixth dynasties, 27 kings of the Memphite Eighth Dynasty, and 19 kings of the Herakleopolitan Ninth Dynasty, and finally, 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty, for a total of 111 kings. The 16 kings of the Eleventh Dynasty is an aberration, as contemporary sources show that only seven kings reigned in this dynasty. Removing the 9 extraneous kings, would bring the total down to 102 kings.

Here ends the First Book of Manetho.

End of section

Dynasty 12

Africanus The Twelfth Dynasty of 7 kings of Diospolis.
Eusebius The Twelfth Dynasty of 7 kings of Diospolis.
Armenian The Twelfth Dynasty of 7 kings of Diospolis.

Table 11: The Twelfth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Σεσονχοσις
Eusebius Σεσονχοσις
ArmenianSesonchosis
Sesonkhosis
Sesonkhosis
Sesonchosis
46
46
46
2 Africanus Aμμανεμης
Eusebius Aμμανεμης
ArmenianAmmenemes
Ammanemes
Ammanemes
Ammenemes
38
68
38
3 Africanus Σεσωστρις
Eusebius Σεσωστρις
ArmenianSesostris
Sesostris
Sesostris
Sesostris
48
48
48
4 Africanus Λαχαρης
Eusebius Λαμαρις
ArmenianLampares
Lakhares
Lamaris
Lampares
8
8
8
5 Africanus Aμμερης
Eusebius
Armenian
Ammeres

8
*
*
6 Africanus Aμμενεμης
Eusebius
Armenian
Ammenemes

8
*
*
7 Africanus Σκεμιoφρις
Eusebius
Armenian
Skemiophris ♀

4
*
*
Total for Dynasty 12 Africanus 160 years.
Eusebius 245 years.
Armenian 245 years.
* The succeeding kings (i.e. the last three kings) ruled for 42 years.

Remarks

According to Africanus and Eusebius both, seven kings belong to Dynasty 12. While Africanus name all seven, Eusebius only name the first four. This is a clear indication that the epitome used by Africanus was more complete. The summation of Eusebius also give a total of 245 years for the dynasty, while the total of the four named kings amount to 170, with no account of the last three kings. Perhaps the epitomist of Eusebius did not understand that there were multiple kings named Amenemhat and Senusret, rejecting similar names as a copying error. The redactor of the Epitome failed to understand that Manetho’s narrative contained not only four kings named Amenemmes, and three kings named Sestoris, but most of them also had coregencies with their sons. This confusion of the identity of the kings and their reigns resulted in disarray – from Ammenemes to Skemiophris.

End of section

Dynasty 13

Africanus The Thirteenth Dynasty of 60 kings of Diospolis for 453 years
Eusebius The Thirteenth Dynasty of 60 kings of Diospolis for 453 years.
Armenian The Thirteenth Dynasty of 60 kings of Diospolis for 453 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Remarks

The 453 years figure for this dynasty is clearly excessive, probably a simple copying error, and should probably be emended down to 153. The figures given for the Second Intermediate Period as a whole were likely due to a redactor not understanding the text. According to Africanus, the SIP looks like this:


------------------------------------------------------
Dynasty 13: 60 kings of Thebes for 453 years
Dynasty 14: 76 kings of Xois for 184 years
Dynasty 15:  6 foreign kings for 284 years
Dynasty 16: 32 shepherd kings for 518 years
Dynasty 17: 86 shepherd and Theban kings for 151 years ------------------------------------------------------

The sheer number of kings and length of the reigns shows that the texts of Manetho were not properly understood by the redactor. It could well be that there was a longer summation of all the kings up to this point, but the context was lost in translation, which would help explain the large number of kings attributed to this period. Perhaps the records available to Manetho was full of lacunae, just like the tattered Turin king list, and further distorted by an incorrect translation.

End of section

Dynasty 14

Africanus The Fourteenth Dynasty of 76 kings of Xoïs for 184 years
Eusebius The Fourteenth Dynasty of 76 kings of Xoïs for 184 years (another copy: 484 years).
Armenian The Fourteenth Dynasty of 76 kings of Xoïs for 484 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Remarks

The figures for this dynasty by Eusebius are identical, though the Armenian version of Eusebius give 484 years for this dynasty, indicating some sort of corruption or perhaps just a simple copying error. The lower figure seems more plausible.

End of section

Dynasty 15

Africanus The Fifteenth Dynasty of 6 (shepherd kings from Phoenicia) of Memphis for 284 years
Eusebius The Fifteenth Dynasty of kings of Diospolis for 250 years.
Armenian The Fifteenth Dynasty of kings of Diospolis for 250 years.

Table 12: The Fifteenth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Josephus Σαλιτις
Africanus Σαιτης
Salitis
Saites
13
19
2 Josephus Βηων
Africanus Βνων
Beon
Bnon
44
44
3 Josephus Aπαχνας
Africanus Παχναν
Apakhnas
Pakhnan
36y 7m
61
4 Josephus Aπωφις
Africanus Στααν
Apophis
Staan
61
50
5 Josephus Iαννας
Africanus Aρχλης
Iannas
Arkhles
50y 1m
49
6 Josephus Aσσις
Africanus Aφοβις
Assis
Aphobis
49y 2m
49

Remarks

Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. Placed here for the sake of comparision with Africanus.
1 Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. The the two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 from Eusebius’ 17th dynasty: foreign kings from Phoenicia who seized Memphis, 103 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: Aphophis reigned before Arkhles.

According to Eusebius, this dynasty consisted of an unknown number of Theban kings, and the foreign kings recorded by Africanus instead appeared as his 17th dynasty.

End of section

Dynasty 16

Africanus The Sixteenth Dynasty of 32 additional shepherd kings for 518 years.
Eusebius The Sixteenth Dynasty of 5 kings of Thebes for 190 years.
Armenian The Sixteenth Dynasty of 5 kings of Thebes for 190 years.

No names, reigns, or other details about the kings.

Remarks

The large figure of years points to a misunderstanding of a summation by the copyist of the epitome, creating an extraneous dynasty in the process.

End of section

Dynasty 17

Africanus The Seventeenth Dynasty of 43 additional shepherd kings & 43 kings of Theban Diospolis.
Eusebius The Seventeenth Dynasty were shepherds and brothers, foreign kings from Phoenicia.
Armenian The Seventeenth Dynasty were shepherds and brothers, Phoenician kings.

Table 13: The Seventeenth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Josephus Σαλιτις
Africanus
Eusebius Σαιτης
Armenian
Salitis

Saites
Saites
13

19
19
2 Josephus Βηων
Africanus
Eusebius Βνων
Armenian
Bnon

Bnon
Bnon
44

40
40
3 Josephus Aπαχνας
Africanus
Eusebius Aφωφις
Armenian
Apakhnas

Aphophis
Archles
36y 7m

14
30
4 Josephus Aπωφις
Africanus
Eusebius Aρχλης
Armenian
Apophis

Arkhles
Aphophis
61

30
14
5 Josephus Iαννας
Africanus
Eusebius
Armenian
Iannas


50y 1m


6 Josephus Aσσις
Africanus
Eusebius
Armenian
Assis


49y 2m


Josephus [Total: 253 years 10 months]
Africanus Total: 151 years
Eusebius Total: 103 years
Armenian Total: 103 years
.

Remarks

According to Josephus, the Hyksos kings preceded the Eighteenth Dynasty kings. The redactor of the epitome misunderstood the text by creating two dynasties yet combining them into one, transferring of an identical number of kings to both. Comparing the description of this dynasty by Africanus “43 additional shepherd kings, and 43 kings of Theban Diospolis, total reigns of the shepherds and Theban kings, 151 years” to Eusebius “they were shepherds and brothers, foreign kings from Phoenicia, who also seized Memphis”, it is clear that they had contradicting versions of Aegyptiaca, or the text was translated differently by their redactors.

End of section

The Hyksos Dynasty

Table 14: The rearranged Hyksos Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Josephus Σαλιτις
Africanus Σαιτης
Eusebius Σαιτης
Armenian
Salitis
Saites
Saites
Saites
13
19
19
19
2 Josephus Βηων
Africanus Βνων
Eusebius Βνων
Armenian
Beon
Bnon
Bnon
Bnon
44
44
40
40
3 Josephus Aπαχνας
Africanus Παχναν
Apakhnas
Pakhnan
36y 7m
61
4 Josephus Iαννας
Africanus Στααν
Iannas
Staan
50y 1m
50
5 Josephus Aπωφις
Africanus Aφοβις
Eusebius Aφωφις
Armenian
Apophis
Aphobis
Aphophis
Aphophis
61
49
30
14
6 Josephus Aσσις
Africanus Aρχλης
Eusebius Aρχλης
Armenian
Assis
Arkhles
Arkhles
Archles
49y 2m
61
14
30
Xxxxxxxxx

Remarks

SEE Waddell p 99 !!!! Plato Manetho’s epitomes definitely contained contradictory material, or at the very least a confusing narrative that the epitomist did not fully comprehend. While Josephus presents Manetho’s Hyksos in detail, the Africanus and Eusebius provide a jumble of kings and dynasties of different length and number, also revealing a pattern of transposition of both reigns and kings.

End of section

Dynasty 18

Africanus The Eighteenth Dynasty of 16 kings of Diospolis.
Eusebius The Eighteenth Dynasty of 14 kings of Diospolis.
Armenian The Eighteenth Dynasty of 14 kings of Diospolis.
Jerome The Eighteenth Dynasty of kings of Diospolis.

Table 15: The Eighteenth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Josephus Τεθμωσις
Africanus Aμως
Eusebius Aμωσις
Armenian
Jerome
Tethmosis
Amos
Amosis
Amoses
Amosis
25y 4m
-
25
25
25
2 Josephus Χεβρων
Africanus Χεβρως
Eusebius Χεβρων
Armenian
Jerome
Khebron
Khebros
Khebron
Chebron
Chebron
13
13
13
13
13
3 Josephus Aμενωφις
Africanus Αμενωφθις
Eusebius Aμμενωφίς
Armenian
Jerome
Amenophis
Amenophthis
Ammenophis
Amophis
Amenophis
20y 7m
24
21
21
21
4 Josephus Aμεσσης
Africanus Αμενσις
Eusebius Μιφρης
Armenian
Jerome
Amesses ♀
Amensis
Miphres
Memphres
Mephres
21y 9m
22
12
12
12
5 Josephus Μηφρης
Africanus Μισαφρις
Eusebius Μισφραγμουθωσις
Armenian
Jerome
Mephres
Misaphris
Misphragmouthosis
Mispharmuthosis
Mispharmuthosis
12y 9m
13
26
26
26
6 Josephus Μηφραμουθωσις
Africanus Μισφραγμουθωσις
Eusebius Τουθμωσις
Armenian
Jerome
Mephramouthosis
Misphragmouthosis
Touthmosis
Tuthmosis
Thmosis
25y 10m
26
9
9
9
7 Josephus Θμωσις
Africanus Τουθμωσις
Eusebius Aμενωφις
Armenian
Jerome
Thmosis
Touthmosis
Amenophis
Amenophis
Ammenophis
9y 8m
9
31
31
31
8 Josephus Aμένωφις
Africanus Αμενωφις
Eusebius Ωρος
Armenian
Jerome
Amenophis
Amenophis
Oros
Orus
Orus
30y 10m
31
36
28
38
9 Josephus Ωρος
Africanus Ωρος
Eusebius Aχενχερσης
Armenian
Jerome
Oros
Oros
Akhenkherses
Achencheres
Achencheres
36y 5m
37
12
16
12
10 Josephus Aκεγχερης
Africanus Αχερρης
Eusebius Aθωρις
Armenian
Jerome
Akenkheres ♀
Akherres
Athoris
Acherres
Achoris
12y 1m
32
39
8
9
11 Josephus Pαθωτις
Africanus Ραθως
Eusebius Χενχερης
Armenian
Jerome
Rhathotis
Rhathos
Khenkheres
Cherres
Chenchres
9
6
16
15
16
12 Josephus Aκεγχηρης
Africanus Χεβρης
Eusebius Aχερρης
Armenian
Jerome
Akenkheres
Khebres
Akherres
Armais
Acherres
12y 5m
12
8
5
8
13 Josephus Aκεγχηρης
Africanus Aχερρης
Eusebius Χερρης
Armenian
Jerome
Akenkheres
Akherres
Kherres
Ramesses aka. Aegyptus
Cherres
12y 3m
12
15
68
15
14 Josephus Aρμαις
Africanus Aρμεσης
Eusebius Aρμαις
Armenian
Jerome
Armais
Armesis
Armais
Amenophis
Armais aka. Danaus
4y 1m
5
5
40
5
15 Josephus Pαμεσσης
Africanus Ραμεσσης
Eusebius Ραμεσσης
Jerome
Rhamesses
Rhamesses
Rhamesses aka. Aegyptus
Remesses aka. Aegyptus
1y 4m
1
68
68
16 Josephus Aρμεσσης Μιαμουν
Africanus Αμενωφαθ
Eusebius Aμμενωφις
Jerome
Armesses Miamun
Amenophath
Ammenophis
Menophis
66y 2m
19
40
40
Total for Dynasty 18 Josephus 246 years.*
Africanus 263 years.
Eusebius 348 years
Armenian 348 years.
Jerome 348 years.
* Josephus does not mention a division into dynasties. However, the sum of the individual reigns is 246 years (240 years + 72 months).

Remarks

The redactor(s) of the Epitome did not understand that not only had this dynasty four kings named Amenhotep, but also four kings named Thutmose. The similarity of the names made it very difficult to separete the names from each other, especially if coregencies were also mentioned. The individual reigns add up to 262 years, not 263 as per Africanus, and curiously there is no reign mentioned for the first king. Also included is a subtotal: Total 69 years from Amos to Misphragmouthosis, however, the sum of these four reigns is 72. Goar emended Amenophthis’ 24 years to 21 to account for the discrepancy, probably based on the 21 years assigned to this king by Eusebius. This subtotal suggest the presence of a summation, or perhaps a longer narrative. Further indication that the epitomists misinterpreted the text is that at the end of the list we find what can only be Ramesses II and Merenptah of the next dynasty.

Egyptologists long have tried to reconcile the names of the four kings in 10-13 with the obscure Amarna kings, but there are too many discrepancies and inconsistencies to be conclusive. Josephus did not indicate a dynastic break in his list of the kings, but many of the names he supplied are spelled differently from Africanus and Eusebius. The order of kings is identical, however only Josephus indicate that Amesses and Akenkheres were actually Queens. All this, once again, suggest multiple and differing versions of Aegyptiaca.

Table 16: The Manethonian Eighteenth Dynasty
(Josephus rounded to nearest year)
Ruler Jos. Afr. Eus. E. (Arm) Sothis
Amosis 25 25 25 25
Chebron 13 13 13 13 13
Amenophis 21 21* 21 21 15
Amesses 22 ♀ 22 11
Mephres 13 13 12 12 13
Mephramuthosis 26 26 26 26 16
Summation
Chebron to Mephramuthosis
69 71*
Thmosis 10 9 9 9 39
Amenophis 31 31 31 31 34
Orus 36 37 36/38 28 48
Acencheres 12 ♀ 32 12 16 25
Rathotis 9 6 39 29
Acencheres (I) 12 12 16 25
Acencheres (II) 12 12 8 8 or 30
[Cherres] 15 15
Armais 4 5 5 5 9
Rhamesses 1 1 68
Ramesses Miamun 66 68
Amenophis 19 19 40 40 8

Despite a few obvious errors, Manetho's versions provide a remarkable level of concordance given the multiple copies generated through centuries of transmission. Most names have little resemblance to the names belonging to the rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Attempts to match Manetho's rulers are far from convincing, as the Greek transcription of names necessitates doubtful linguistic acrobatics.

Things to consider: Amenhotep IV name change to Akhenaten could mean that Manetho added both names as separate kings in his list. Perhaps there was a failed attempt to establish a king opposing Akhenaten of which no archaeological record remain, yet were preserved by Manetho?

End of section

Dynasty 19

Africanus The Nineteenth Dynasty of 6 kings of Diospolis.
Eusebius The Nineteenth Dynasty of 5 kings of Diospolis.
Armenian The Nineteenth Dynasty of 5 kings of Diospolis.

Table 17: The Nineteenth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Σεθως
Eusebius Σεθως
Armenian
Sethos
Sethos
Sethos
51
55
55
2 Africanus Ραψακης
Eusebius Ραμψης
Armenian
Rapsakes
Rampses
Rampses
61 (66)
66
66
3 Africanus Aμενεφθης
Eusebius Aμμενεφθίς
Armenian
Amenephthes
Ammenephthis
Ammenephthis
20
40
8
4 Africanus Ραμεσσης Ramesses 60
5 Africanus Aμμενεμνης
Eusebius Aμμενεμης
Armenian
Ammenemnes
Ammenemes
Ammenemes
5
26
26
6 Africanus Θουωρις
Eusebius Θουωρις
Armenian
Thouoris
Thouoris
7
7
7
Total for Dynasty 19 Africanus 209 years.1
Eusebius 194 years
Armenian 194 years.
1 The sum of the items given is 204 years.

Africanus In the above second book of Manetho, there is a total of 96 kings, ruling for 2121 years.
Eusebius In the above second book of Manetho, there is a total of 92 kings, ruling for 1121 year
Armenian In the Second Book of Manetho there is a total of 92 kings, ruling for 2121 years.

Remarks

The confusion of the New Kingdom kings continues.
The sum of the individual dynasties of Africanus comes to 246 kings for 2221 years.
The sum of the individual dynasties of Eusebius comes to 171 kings for 1967 or 2272 years. Cf. Eus. 1.68.20, which has 2121 years.

Here ends the Second Book of Manetho.

End of section

Dynasty 20

Africanus The Twentieth Dynasty of 12 kings of Diospolis for 135 years.
Eusebius The Twentieth Dynasty of 5 kings of Diospolis for 178 years.
Armenian The Twentieth Dynasty of 12 kings of Diospolis for 182 years.

No details of the kings mentioned.

End of section

New Kingdom

New Kingdom archaeological records
DynastyRulerLowHighRemarks
18 Ahmose I 22 25 Kkkkk
Amenhotep I 21 Xxxxx
Thutmose I 9 13 Xxxxx
Thutmose II 3 13 Xxxxx
Hatshepsut 21 22 Xxxxx
Thutmose III 54 Xxxxx
Amenhotep II 26 Xxxxx
Thutmose IV 8 10 Xxxxx
Amenhotep III 38 39 Xxxxx
Amenhotep IV 17 Xxxxx
Neferneferuaten 3 Xxxxx
Smenkhkara 1 Xxxxx
Tutankhamun 10 10 Xxxxx
Ay 4 4 Xxxxx
Horemheb 14 14 Xxxxx
19 Ramesses I 2 2 Xxxxx
Seti I 11 11 Xxxxx
Ramesses II 66 66 Xxxxx
Merenptah 9 9 Xxxxx
Seti II 6 6 Xxxxx
Amenmesse 4 4 Xxxxx
Siptah 6 6 Xxxxx
Tausret 3 3 Xxxxx
20 Setnakht 3 3 Xxxxx
Ramesses III 31 31 Xxxxx
Ramesses IV 4 4 Xxxxx
Ramesses V 4 4 Xxxxx
Ramesses VI 8 8 Xxxxx
Ramesses VII 7 7 Xxxxx
Ramesses VIII 1 1 Xxxxx
Ramesses IX 18 18 Xxxxx
Ramesses X 3 3 Xxxxx
Ramesses XI 28 28 Xxxxx
TOTAL 434 486
The New Kingdom dynasties
DynastyYearsRemarks
18 1550-1292 (258) 270 years
19 1292-1186 (106) 107 years
20 1190-1077 (113) 107 years
Total477 years484 years

Remarks

Draft. To be reworked.

[Tetley p443] What appears here is that the total number of years from Manetho’s 18th and 19th Dynasties cover the same number of years as the 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasties known from contemporary sources. Manetho’s 18th Dynasty amounts to 393 years and the 19th Dynasty amounts to 164 “proposed original” years, totaling 557 years.

c. 1550–1070

End of section

Dynasty 21

Africanus The Twenty-first Dynasty of 7 kings of Tanis.
Eusebius The Twenty-first Dynasty of 7 kings of Tanis.
Armenian The Twenty-first Dynasty of 7 kings of Tanis.

Table 18: The Twenty-first Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Σμενδης
Eusebius Σμενδις
Armenian Smendis
Smendes
Smendis
Smendis
26
26
26
2 Africanus Ψουσεννης
Eusebius Ψουσεννης
Armenian Psusennes
Psousennes
Psousennes
Psusennes
46
41
41
3 Africanus Νεφελχερης
Eusebius Νεφερχερης
Armenian Nephercheres
Nephelkheres
Nepherkheres
Nephercheres
4
4
4
4 Africanus Aμενωφθίς
Eusebius Aμμενωφθις
Armenian Amenophthis
Amenophthis
Ammenophthis
Amenophthis
9
9
9
5 Africanus Oσοχωρ
Eusebius Oσοχωρ
Armenian Osochor
Osokhor
Osokhor
Osochor
6
6
6
6 Africanus Ψιναχης
Eusebius Ψιναχης
Armenian Psinnaches
Psinakhes
Psinakhes
Psinnaches
9
9
9
7 Africanus Ψουσεννης
Eusebius Ψουσεννης
Armenian Psusennes
Psousennes
Psousennes
Psusennes
14
35
35
Total for Dynasty 21 Africanus 130 years.1
Eusebius 130 years
Armenian 130 years.
1 The sum of the individual items comes to 114 years.

Remarks

Incomplete. To be reworked/reviewed.

End of section

Dynasty 22

Africanus The Twenty-second Dynasty of 9 kings of Bubastis.
Eusebius The Twenty-second Dynasty of 3 kings of Bubastis.
Armenian The Twenty-second Dynasty of 3 kings of Bubastis.

Table 19: The Twenty-second Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Σεσονχωσις
Eusebius Σεσονχωσις
Armenian Sesonchosis
Sesonkhosis
Sesonkhosis
Sesonchosis
21
21
21
2 Africanus Oσορθων
Eusebius Oσορθων
Armenian Osorthon
Osorthon
Osorthon
Osorthon
15
15
15
- Africanus Three other kings 25
3 Africanus Τακελωθις
Eusebius Τακελωθις
Armenian Takelothis
Takelothis
Takelothis
Takelothis
13
13
13
- Africanus Three other kings 42
Total for Dynasty 22 Africanus 120 years.1
Eusebius 49 years
Armenian 49 years.
1 The sum of the individual items comes to 116 years.

Remarks

Incomplete. To be reworked/reviewed.

End of section

Dynasty 23

Africanus The Twenty-third Dynasty of 4 kings of Tanis.
Eusebius The Twenty-third Dynasty of 3 kings of Tanis.
Armenian The Twenty-third Dynasty of 3 kings of Tanis.

Table 20: The Twenty-third Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Πετουβατης
Eusebius Πετουβαστις
Armenian Petubastis
Petoubates
Petoubastis
Petubastis
40
25
25
2 Africanus Oσορχω
Eusebius Oσορθων
Armenian Osorthon
Osorkho
Osorthon
Osorthon
8
9
9
3 Africanus Ψαμμους
Eusebius Ψαμμους
Armenian Psammus
Psammous
Psammous
Psammus
10
10
10
4 Africanus Ζητ Zet 31
Total for Dynasty 23 Africanus 120 years.1
Eusebius 49 years
Armenian 49 years.
1 The name Zet might be a contraction of Ζητειται ("there is a question"), with the implication that the name is uncertain/unknown.

Remarks

Africanus notes that “the first Olympiad festival was celebrated in the reign of Petubates”, while it is absent from Eusebius. All three versions point out that “Osorthon was called Herkules by the Egyptians.”

End of section

Dynasty 24

Africanus The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.
Eusebius The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.
Armenian The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.

Table 21: The Twenty-fourth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Βοχχωρις Σαιτης
Eusebius Βόχχωρις
Armenian Bochchoris
Bokhkhoris of Sais
Bokhkhoris of Sais
Bochchoris of Sais
6
44
44
Total for Dynasty 24 Africanus ... 990 years.1
Eusebius 44 years
Armenian 44 years.
1 Text: ϠϘʹ Note that the Greek 900-sign in Africanus was not used in the time of Manetho. Waddell assumes a lacuna in the text, and Mosshammer suggests a possible emendation to ετη όµou Ϙεʹ (‘altogether 95 years’).

Remarks

Incomplete. To be reworked/reviewed.

End of section

Dynasty 25

Africanus The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of 3 Ethiopian kings.
Eusebius The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of 3 Ethiopian kings.
Armenian The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of 3 Ethiopian kings.

Table 22: The Twenty-fifth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Σαβακων
Eusebius Σαβακων
Armenian Sabacon
Sabakon
Sabakon
Sabacon
8
12
12
2 Africanus Σεβιχως
Eusebius Σεβιχως
Armenian Sebichos
Sebikhos
Sebikhos
Sebichos
14
12
12
3 Africanus Ταρκος
Eusebius Ταρακος
Armenian Taracus
Tarkos
Tarakos
Taracus
18
20
20
Total for Dynasty 25 Africanus 40 years.
Eusebius 44 years
Armenian 44 years.

Remarks

All three versions agree that Shabaka took his predecessor Bakenrenef captive, and had him burned alive.

End of section

Dynasty 26

Africanus The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of 9 kings of Sais.
Eusebius The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of 9 kings of Sais.
Armenian The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of 9 kings of Sais.

Table 23: The Twenty-sixth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1
1
Eusebius Aμμερις Aιθιοψ
Armenian Ameres the Ethiopian
Ammeris the Ethiopian
Ameres the Ethiopian
12
18
1
2
2
Africanus Στεφινατης
Eusebius Στεφιναθις
Armenian Stephinathes
Stephinates
Stephinathis
Stephinathes
7
7
7
2
3
3
Africanus Νεχεψως
Eusebius Νεχεψως
Armenian Nechepsos
Nechepsos
Nekhepsos
Nechepsos
6
6
6
3
4
4
Africanus Νεχαω
Eusebius Νεχαω
Armenian Nechao
Nekhao
Nekhao
Nechao
8
8
8
4
5
5
Africanus Ψαμμητιχος
Eusebius Ψαμμητιχος
Armenian Psametichus
Psammetikhos
Psammetikhos
Psametichus
54
45
44
5
6
6
Africanus Νεχαω δεύτερος1
Eusebius Νεχαω δεύτερος1
Armenian Nechao alter1
Nekhao II
Nekhao II
Nechao II
6
6
6
6
7
7
Africanus Ψαμμουθις ἒτερος2
Eusebius Ψαμμουθις ἒτερος2
Armenian Psamuthes alter2
Psammouthis II
Psammouthis II
Psamuthes II
6
17
17
7
8
8
Africanus Ουαφρις3
Eusebius Ουαφρις3
Armenian Uaphres3
Ouaphris
Ouaphris
Uaphres
19
25
25
8
9
9
Africanus Aμωσις
Eusebius Aμωσις
Armenian Amosis
Amosis
Amosis
Amosis
44
42
42
9 Africanus Ψαμμεχεριτης Psammekherites 6 mo.
Total for Dynasty 26 Africanus 150 years, 6 months.
Eusebius 163 years4
Armenian 167 years.
1 “He captured Jerusalem and led king Joachaz [Jehoahaz III of Judah] captive into Egypt.”
2 “also called Psammetichus”.
3 “The remnant of the Jews fled to him when Jerusalem was captured by the Assyrians.”
4 The sum of the individual items comes to 168 years.

Remarks

Eusebius have a different first king to Africanus, while the last king of Africanus is different from Eusebius. The other kings align well otherwise.

End of section

Dynasty 27

Africanus The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of 8 Persian kings.
Eusebius The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of 8 Persian kings.
Armenian The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of 8 Persian kings.

Table 24: The Twenty-seventh Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1
1
1
Africanus Καμβυσης
Eusebius Καμβυσης
Armenian Cambyses
Kambyses
Kambyses
Cambyses
6
3
3
2
2
Eusebius Μαγοι
Armenian Magi
Magi
Magi
7 mo.
7 mo.
2
3
3
Africanus Δαρειος Ύστασπου
Eusebius Δαρειος
Armenian Darius
Dareios son of Hystaspes
Dareios
Darius
36
36
36
3
4
4
Africanus Ξερξης ό μέγας
Eusebius Ξερξης ό Δαρειον
Armenian Xerxes Darii
Xerxes the Great
Xerxes, son of Dareios
Xerxes, son of Darius
21
21
21
4 Africanus Aρταβανος Artabanos 7 mo.
5 Africanus Aρταξερξης
Eusebius Aρταξερξης ό μακρόχειρ
Armenian Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes of the long hand
Artaxerxes
41
40
40
6 Africanus Ξερξης
Eusebius Ξερξης ό δεύτερος
Armenian Xerxes alter
Xerxes
Xerxes II
Xerxes II
2 mo.
2 mo.
2 mo.
7 Africanus Σογδιανος
Eusebius Σογδιανος
Armenian Sogdianus
Sogdianos
Sogdianos
Sogdianus
7 mo.
7 mo.
7 mo.
8 Africanus Δαρειος
Eusebius Δαρειος
Armenian Darius
Dareios
Dareios
Darius
19
19
19
Total for Dynasty 27 Africanus 124 years 4 months.
Eusebius 120 years 4 months.
Armenian 120 years 4 months.

Remarks

Eusebius adds the Magi as a 7-month king while Africanus adds Artabanos, also 7-months.

End of section

Dynasty 28

Africanus The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.
Eusebius The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.
Armenian The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.

Table 25: The Twenty-eighth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Aμυρτεος Σαιτης
Eusebius Aμυρταιος Σαιτης
Armenian Amyrtes Saites
Amyrteos of Sais
Amyrtaios of Sais
Amyrtes of Sais
6
6
6

Remarks

Incomplete. To be reworked/reviewed.

End of section

Dynasty 29

Africanus The Twenty-ninth Dynasty of 4 kings of Mendes.
Eusebius The Twenty-ninth Dynasty of 4 kings of Mendes.
Armenian The Twenty-ninth Dynasty of 4 kings of Mendes.

Table 26: The Twenty-ninth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Νεφεριτης
Eusebius Νεφεριτης
Armenian Nepherites
Nepherites
Nepherites
Nepherites
6
6
6
2 Africanus Aχωρις
Eusebius Aχωρις
Armenian Achoris
Akhoris
Akhoris
Achoris
13
13
13
3 Africanus Ψαμμουθις
Eusebius Ψαμμουθις
Armenian Psamuthes
Psammouthis
Psammouthis
Psamuthes
1
1
1
4
4
5
Africanus Νεφεριτης
Eusebius Νεφεριτης
Armenian Nepherites
Nepherites
Nepherites
Muthes
4 mo.
4 mo.
1
5
4
Eusebius Μουθις
Armenian Muthes
Mouthis
Muthes
1
1
Total for Dynasty 29 Africanus 20 years 4 months.
Eusebius 21 years 4 months.
Armenian 21 years 4 months.
Armenian Eusebius shifted place of kings 4 and 5.

Remarks

Eusebius include five kings, despite summary mentioning only four.

End of section

Dynasty 30

Africanus The Thirtieth Dynasty of 3 kings of Sebennytus.
Eusebius The Thirtieth Dynasty of 3 kings of Sebennytus.
Armenian The Thirtieth Dynasty of 3 kings of Sebennytus.

Table 27: The Thirtieth Dynasty
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Νεκτανέβης
Eusebius Νεκτανεβης
Armenian Nectanebis
Nektanebes
Nektanebes
Nectanebis
18
10
10
2 Africanus Τεως
Eusebius Τεως
Armenian Teos
Teos
Teos
Teos
2
2
2
3 Africanus Νεκτανεβος
Eusebius Νεκτανεβος
Armenian Nectanebus
Nektanebos
Nektanebos
Nectanebus
18
8
8
Total for Dynasty 30 Afrfr 38 years.
Eusus 20 years.
Afrrm 20 years.

Remarks

Last indigenous kings.

End of section

Dynasty 31

Africanus The Thirty-first Dynasty of 3 Persian kings.
Eusebius The Thirty-first Dynasty of 3 Persian kings.
Armenian The Thirty-first Dynasty of 3 Persian kings.

Table 28: The Thirty-first Dynasty (Persian)
Greek Name Reign
1 Africanus Ωχος
Eusebius Ωχος
Armenian Ochus
Okhos
Okhos
Ochus
2
6
6
2 Africanus Aρσης
Eusebius Aρσης
Armenian Arses
Arses
Arses
Arses
3
4
4
3 Africanus Δαρειος
Eusebius Δαρειος1
Armenian Darius1
Dareios
Dareios
Darius
4
6
6
Africanus Total of years in Book III., 1050 years.2 Here ends the History of Manetho.
Eusebius These are the contents of the Third Book of Manetho. Here ends the History of Manetho.
Armenian These are the contents of the Third Book of Manetho.
1 He was put to death by Alexander of Macedon.
2 The sum of the individual items comes to 855 years.

Remarks

This second Persian domination lasted only a handful years and was ended by the bloodless conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, who killed Darius.

Here ends the Third Book of Manetho.

End of section

Bibliography

  • Adler, W. & Tuffin, P., 2002. The Chronography of George Synkellos. Oxford.
  • Barclay, John M. G., 2007. Flavius Josephus: Against Apion. Leiden and Boston.
  • Dindorf, W., 1829. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae. Bonn.
  • Gardiner, Alan H., 1961. Egypt of the pharaohs. Oxford.
  • Goar, J., 1652. Georgii Monachi quondam Syncelli Chronographia. Paris.
  • Mosshammer, A. A., 1984. Georgii Syncelli Ecloga Chronographica. Leipzig.
  • Scaliger, J. J., 1606. Thesaurus Temporum. Leiden.
  • Waddell, W. G., 1964. Manetho. Cambridge, Mass., London.
  • Verbrugghe, G. P. & Wickersham, J. M., 1996. Berossos and Manetho, introduced and translated. Ann Arbor.