Amenemhat I in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty, a.k.a. Amenemhet I

Amenemhat I was not of royal birth, and somehow managed to capture the throne. It is possible that he was Menthuhotep IV's vizier named Amenemhat, who led an expedition to Wadi Hammamat. The king died, it is unknown if by Amenemhat's hand or by some accident. Either way, he founded the great Twelfth dynasty.

Amenemhat I moved the capital from Thebes to the lost city of Itjtawy, thought to be located close to the pyramids of Amenemhat I and his son Senusret I.

Precedessor
Mentuhotep IV

Successor
Senusret I

Reign of Amenemhat I
AE Chronology1939–1910
v. Beckerath1976–1947
Shaw1985–1956
Dodson1994–1964
Arnold1991–1962
Malek1980–1951
Grimal1991–1962
Franke1938–1909
Redford1991–1962
Manetho (Eusebius)16 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Wehem mesut  The Dual King Sehotep ib Ra  Son of Ra Amenemhat

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Sehotep ib tawy
s-ḥtp-ib-tꜢwi
The one who has appeased the heart of the Two Lands
s-Htp:ib:N17:N17
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:H1
Horus name variant
Wehem mesut
wḥm-mswt
The one who has repeated births
wHm-ms:t-w
Naville, Bubastis, plate XXXIII A
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 124 a27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:H2

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Sehotep ib tawy
s-ḥtp-ib-tꜢwi
The one who has appeased the heart of the Two Lands
s-Htp:ib:N17:N17
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1: N1
Nebty name variant
Wehem mesut
wḥm-mswt
The one who has repeated births
wHm-ms-w&t
Petrie Museum, UC14785
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:N2

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Bik nebu sema
bik-nbw-zmꜢ
The uniter
F36*G5:nbw
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Bik nebu mes
bik-nbw-ms
ms*G5:nbw
Benihassan Tomb 2, Large Incription A
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 124a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
He who satisfies the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:ib
Benihassan Tomb 2
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 124 a28
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:T1
Throne name variant
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
He who satisfies the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:t*p-ib
Abydos Canon no. 59

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:T2
Throne name variant
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
He who satisfies the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:t-p-ib-Z1
Saqqara Canon no. 15
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , III, 481 (15)
Throne name variant
..pib(ra)
//-p-ib
..p-ib-1
Turin King List 6.20
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) V:20

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:t
Benihassan Tomb 2, Large Incription A
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 124 b29
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:a
Mariette, Karnak, plate 8d+e
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 82-83, 1:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xi, 1 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes 16 years
Eusebius xi Aμμενεμης Ammenemes 16 years
Eratosthenes 32 Σταμμενεμης α Stammenemes I 26

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 253–265
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 82–83
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 57–58
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 19–23
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