Darius I in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty, a.k.a. Dārayauš, Dareios, Darius the Great

Precedessor
Cambyses II

Successor
Xerxes I

Reign of Darius I
AE Chronology521–486
v. Beckerath522–486
Shaw522–486
Dodson521–486
Redford521–486

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Menekh ib  The Dual King Setut Ra  Son of Ra Deriush

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Menekh ib
mnḫ-ib
The one splendid of mind
mn:n:x*ib
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 13
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:H1
Horus name variant
Wer neb mery Shemau
wr-nb-mri-šmꜤw
Chieftain and Lord, beloved of Upper Egypt
A21A-nb-M162-i*i:N36
Counterweight (Cairo Museum JE 37050)
ASAE , 8, 51
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:H2

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
null
zA&1-i-mn:n-A40A-s-t:p-stp&n-C2B-m-F26:n-W24&w-pr\70:1-i-f:d:a:4-s-n:Z2
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 38
Hibis Temple exterior, west wall

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
null
nb:t-?:?:?-Z3-mr-i-i-R8A-Z3-R8-t:r-t:H8-A40-Z3-nb:Z2-W24:1-N16:U7\:r-i-rnp-O49:O49-Z3
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 38
Hibis Temple exterior, west wall

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Setut Ra
stwt-rꜤ
Progeny of Ra
ra-s-t:t-w
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 48
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:T1
Throne name variant A
Mery Amun-Ra
mry imn-rꜤ
C2A\-C12A-N36-i-i
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 45
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:T2
Throne name variant B
Mery Amun-Ra, neb Hebet, netjer aa, nakht khepesh
mri-imn-rꜤ nb-ḥbt nṯr-ꜤꜢ nḫt-ḫpš
Beloved of Amun-Ra, Lord of Hibis, the great god, the one strong of arm
i-mn:n:ra*Z1-k:O4A-b-t:O49-aAv-nTr-F12A-D40:xpS-N36
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:T3
Throne name variant C
Mery Amun, [neb] Hebet, user nakht khepesh
mri-imn [nb]-ḥbt wsr-nḫt-ḫpš
Beloved of Amun, [Lord of] Hibis, the one strong of arm
i-mn:n-O4A&b-t:O49-wsr-r:D40-xpS:N36
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 32
Throne name variant D
Mery Amun, [neb] Hebet, user nakht khepesh
mri-imn [nb]-ḥbt wsr-nḫt-ḫpš
Beloved of Amun, [Lord of] Hibis, the one strong of arm
i-mn:n-O4A&b-t:O49-F12A-s-r:D40-xpS:N36
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 32

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Deriush
driwš
Darius
ini-ti-E23-i-i-Ar-M8A
Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis (1953), III, pl. 9, passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E6
Birth name variant A
Deriush
driwš
Darius
N17:E23-wA-M8
Posener, La premiere domination Perse en Egypte, 37 (5)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E1
Birth name variant B
Deriush
driwš
Darius
N17:r-w-M8A
Hammamat inscription no. 14
Couyat, Montet, Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât, MIFAO 34 (1912), 39
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E2
Birth name variant C
Deriush
driwš
Darius
N17:E23-i-i-w-M8A
Bronze plaque (Cairo Museum JE 38050)
Birth name variant D
Deriush
driwš
Darius
T:r-i-i-w-M8A
Posener, La premiere domination Perse en Egypte, 93 (13)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E3
Birth name variant E
Deriush
driwš
Darius
ini-N17:r-w-M8A
Hammamat inscription no. 186
Couyat, Montet, Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât, MIFAO 34 (1912), 96
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E4
Birth name variant F
Deriush
driwš
Darius
ini-ti-E23-M8A
Posener, La premiere domination Perse en Egypte, 130 (35)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E5
Birth name variant G
Deriush
driwš
Darius
ini-ti-M20-E23-M8A
Stela of Pedusiri-pare kneeling before Darius I (Berlin, ÄM 7493)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E7
Birth name variant H
Deriush
driwš
Darius
n:d-rw-E9:T\
Posener, La premiere domination Perse en Egypte, 21 (E)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 220-221, 2:E8

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxvii, 2 Δαρειος Darius 36 years
Eusebius xxvii, 3 Δαρειος Darius 36 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 140–150
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 220–221
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 168
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