Djoser in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, a.k.a. Zezer, Zozer, Djeser

The Horus name Netjerykhet can with certainty be attached to Djoser as the names appears together on a statue of Senusret II of the twelfth dynasty, and also on the Famine stela carved into the rock on Sehel Island. Stelae from the Djoser pyramid complex at Saqqara mention the name of Djoser and his family, but always start with Khenti-ta-djeser-nisut (blessed be the country of the sublime king). The "djeser-nisut" was probably misinterpreted as his birth name by later scribes.

Precedessor
Nebka

Successor
Sekhemkhet

Reign of Djoser
AE Chronology2592–2566
v. Beckerath2665–2645
Shaw2667–2648
Dodson2584–2565
Allen2630–2611
Malek2628–2609
Redford2687–2668
Turin King List19y 1m
Manetho (Africanus)29 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King

Horus Netjery khet  The Dual King Djoser*

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Netjery khet
nṯri-ẖt
Divine of body
nTr-r:X
Garstang, Mahasna, plates VIII to X
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 2f
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:H1
Horus name variant
Netjery khet*
nṯri-ẖt
nTr-t:r-X:t*F51B
Famine stela on Sehel Island, inscribed during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:H2

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Netjery khet
nṯri-ẖt
The one whose body is divine
nTr-r:X
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 2f
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:N
Nebty name variant
Netjery khet nebu
nṯri-ẖt-nbw
nTr-r:X:nbw
Garstang, Mahasna and Bet Khallaf, plate VIII (1)

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Nub Ra
nbw-rꜤ
ra:nbw
Kaplony. Steingefäße mit Inschriften der Frühzeit und des Alten Reiches, I, 68
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 2f
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Djoser*
ḏsr
The sacred one
Dsr-r
Saqqara Canon no. 47
Statue of Djoser dedicated by Senusret II, ÄM 7702
Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Staatlichen Museum zu Berlin. I, 144 (7702)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:E2
Throne name variant
Djoser it*
ḏsr-it
Dsr:r-i-t-G7
Turin King List 4.5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:E3
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) III:5
Throne name variant
Djoser sa*
ḏsr-sꜢ
//-Dsr-V17
Abydos Canon no. 16

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 48-49, 2:E1
Throne name variant
Djoser*
ḏsr
D251-z:r
Famine stela on Sehel Island, inscribed during the Ptolemaic dynasty.

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus iii, 2 Toσoρθρoς Tosorthros 29 years
Eusebius iii, 2 Σεσορθος Sesorthos

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 50–53
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 48–49
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 32
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 96–100
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