Hatshepsut in hieroglyphs

The fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Hatchepsut

When Thutmose II died Thutmose III was too young to rule, queen Hatshepsut became his regent, and ultimately her rise in power was complete when she became pharaoh. She never denied kingship to young Thutmose III, they rather seem to have been on very friendly terms. She was only the second queen to have ruled Egypt with certainty – the first in some 300 years. Josephus mentions that Amessis was a woman, but Manetho via Africanus fail to mention that Amensis was female, and Eusebius omitted this pharaoh entirely.

For unknown reasons, Hatshepsut was erased from official monuments twenty years after her death, during the later part of Tuthmose III's reign. Strangely enough, only the more visible and accessible images of her were erased or defaced. She was not included in the Ramesside king lists of Seti I and Ramesses II.

Precedessor
Thutmose II

Successor
Thutmose III

Reign of Hatshepsut
AE Chronology1479–1458
v. Beckerath1479–1458
Shaw1473–1458
Dodson1472–1457
Arnold1473–1458
Malek1479–1457
Grimal1478–1458
Redford1502–1482
Manetho (Josephus)21y 9m
Manetho (Africanus)22 years
Highest attestationYear 20

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Useret kau  The Dual King Maat ka Ra  Son of Ra Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Useret kau
wsr.t-kꜢ.w
Mighty of Ka's
wsr-s-t:kA-kA:kA
Karnak Obelisks E and F
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22-24
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:H

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wadjet renput
wꜢḏ.t-rnp.wt
Flourishing of years
wAD:t-rnp-rnp-rnp
Karnak Obelisk E
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:N
Nebty name variant
Iti tau nebu
iti-tꜢw-nbw
Who has seized all lands
V15-N17:N17:N17:nb-Z3
Karnak fallen Obelisk F
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 24

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Netjeret khau
nṯrt-ḫꜤw
Divine of appearance
nTr-t:xa:Z2
Karnak Obelisk E
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Netjeret khau
nṯrt-ḫꜤw
Divine of appearance
nTr-t:r:T-xa:a-w
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 261
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:G2
Golden Horus name variant
Sankh ibu
s-Ꜥnḫ-ibw
Who has sustained minds
s-anx-ib:ib:ib
Karnak fallen Obelisk F
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 24

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-C10A-kA
Karnak Obelisk E
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22-23
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-H6-kA
Saucer from tomb of Thutmose IV, CG46004
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 381
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:T2
Throne name variant
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-U4:a-t:kA
Astronomical chart in Tomb of Senenmut
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number: 48.105.52

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
imn-ẖnmt ḥꜢ.t-šps.wt
United with Amun, foremost of noble ladies
i-mn:n-W9:t-HAt-t&A51-Z3
Karnak Obelisk E
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22-23
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
imn-ẖnm ḥꜢt-šps.wt
United with Amun, foremost of noble ladies
i-mn:n-W9:HAt-A51
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 397
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:E3
Birth name variant
Hat shepsut
ḥꜢ.t-šps.wt
Foremost of noble ladies
HAt:t-A51-t:Z2
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 398
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 5:E1

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 4 Αμενσις Amensis 22 years
Josephus 95 Aμεσσης Amesses ♀ 21 years, 9 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 236–252
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 134–135
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 98
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 104–110
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