Shebitko in hieroglyphs

The third pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, a.k.a. Shebitku

Recent archaeological evidence now favours a Shebitko-Shabaka succession against the Shabaka-Shebitko tradition.

Precedessor
Shabaka

Successor
Taharqa

Reign of Shebitko
AE Chronology706–690
v. Beckerath698–690
Shaw702–690
Dodson707–690
Arnold702–690
Grimal702–690
Redford705–690
Manetho (Africanus)14 years
Manetho (Eusebius)12 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Djed khau  The Dual King Djed kau Ra  Son of Ra Sha ba ta ka

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Djed khau
ḏd-ḫꜤw
Stable of appearances
Dd-xa:a
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:H1
Horus name variant
Djed khau
ḏd-ḫꜤw
Stable of appearances
Dd-w&xa
Mariette, Monument divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie (1872), II, pl. 29 (c3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:H3
Horus name variant
Djed khau Sha ba ta ka
ḏd-ḫꜤw šꜢbꜢtꜢkꜢ
Stable of appearances, Shabataka
Dd-xa-w-M8A-E10-N17:kA
Mariette, Monument divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie (1872), II, pl. 29 (c2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:H4
Horus name variant
Djed khat
ḏd-ḫꜤt
Dd-xa:t
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:H2

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Aa shefyt em tau nebu
ꜤꜢ-šfit-m-tꜢw-nb(w)
Great of majesty in all lands
aA:a-F8-m-N17:N17:N17:nb
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:N1
Nebty name variant
Sekha em Maat mery tawy
sḫꜤi-mꜢꜤt mri-tꜢwi
s-xa:a:Y1-U4-a:t-mr*i*i:N17:N17
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:N2
Nebty name variant
Djed khau
ḏd-ḫꜤw
Stable of appearances
Dd-xa:a-w
Beckerath, The Nile Level Records at Karnak and their Importance, JARCE 5: 53:33
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Aa khepesh hui pedjut 9
ꜤꜢ-ḥpš ḥwi-pḏt
The one great of strength who has struck down the Nine Bows
aA:a:xpS-H-A24-pD:3:3*3
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Her her nakht
hr-ḥr-nḫtw
The one who is satisfied with victory
O4A:r:Y1-D2:Z1-n:x*t:D40
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Djed kau Ra
ḏd-kꜢw-rꜤ
The stable one of the kas of Ra
ra-Dd-kA*kA:kA
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Djed ka Ra
ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ
The stable one of the ka of Ra
ra-Dd-kA
Donation Stela of Shebitqo
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Acc. No. 65.45
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Sha ba ta ka
šꜢbꜢtꜢkꜢ
Shabataka
M8A-E10-N17:kA
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:E1
Birth name variant
Sha ba ta ka mery Amun
šꜢbꜢtꜢkꜢ mri-imn
Shabataka, beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-M8A-E10-N17:kA
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, V, 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Sha ba ta ka mery Ptah
šꜢbꜢtꜢkꜢ mri-ptḥ
Shabataka, beloved of Ptah
p:t-H-N36:M8A-E10-N17:kA
Mariette, Monument divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie (1872), II, pl. 29 (c1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 208-209, 5:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxv, 2 Σεβιχως Sebichus 14 years
Eusebius xxv, 2 Σεβιχως Sebichos 12 years
Jerome Sebichus 12 years
Herodotus 141.1 Σεθων Sethus

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 28–30
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 208–209
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 162–163
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