Comparing the Manetho king lists

 

More than two millenia has passed since Manetho wrote his Aegyptiaca in Egypt. The transmission of the original manuscript has not been easy nor wholly trustworthy. As the lists are straightforward, tabulating them together is easy. Discrepancies naturally occur, from errors in copying, misreading the original, to intentional changes for religious purposes.

Africanus is generally considered more trustworthy than Eusebius, because his edition is more complete and was written a hundred years prior to Eusebius, and might have been less 'tainted' by earlier versions of the Epitome that were closer to the original text of Manetho.

The transcription of the Egyptian word ka became kheres in Greek, and the -ra at the end of a name was dropped, so that Men-kau-raMen-kheres.

Dynasty 1
1 The correct sum is 263 years
2 The correct sum is 258 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: 270 years
4 Armenian Eusebius: 30 years.
5 Armenian Eusebius: Memphses.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings of Thinis, 253 years18 kings of Thinis, 2522 years3
Narmer1Menes621Menes604
Aha2Athothis572Athotis27
Djer3Kenkenes313Kenkenes39
Djet4Ouenephes234Ouenephes42
Den5Ousaphaidos205Ousaphais20
Adjib6Miebidos266Niebais26
Semerkhet7Semempses187Semempses518
Qa'a8Bienekhes268Oubienthes26
Dynasty 2
1 Armenian Eusebius: Kekhoos
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings, 302 years9 kings, 297 years
Hotepsekhemwy1Boethos381Bokhos
Nebra2Kaiekhos392Khoös1
Ninetjer3Binothris473Biophis
Wadjnes4Tlas174
Senedj5Sethenes415
?6Khaeres176
Sneferka7Nepherkheres257
Neferkasokar8Sesokhris488Sesokhris48
Khasekhemwy9Kheneres309Kheneres30
Dynasty 3
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Memphis, 214 years8 kings of Memphis, 198 years
Nebka1Nekherophes281Nekherokhis-
Djoser2Tosorthros292Sesorthos-
Sekhemkhet3Tyreis73--
Mesochris4Mesokhris174--
?5Souphis165--
?6Tosertasis196--
?7Akhes427--
?8Sephouris308--
?9Kerpheres26   
Dynasty 4
1 The correct sum is 284 years
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings of Memphis, 277 years117 kings of Memphis, 448 years
Snoferu1Soris29---
Khufu2Souphis633Souphis-
Khafra3Souphis66---
Menkaura4Menkheres63---
Djedefra5Rhatoises25---
Baufra6Bikheres22---
Shepseskaf7Seberkheres7---
Thamphthis8Thamphthis9---
Dynasty 5
1 The sum of the items given is 218 years.
2 Eusebius simply added 100 years for this dynasty in the total with the previous dynasties
3 Eusebius' fifth dynasty kings actually belong to the sixth
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings of Elephantine, 248 years131 kings of Elephantine, 100 years2
Userkaf1Ouserkheres281Othoës3-
Sahura2Sephres13---
Neferirkara I Kakai3Nepherkheres20---
Shepseskara Netjeruser4Sisires74Phiops394
Neferefra Isi5Kheres20---
Niuserra Ini6Rhathoures44---
Menkauhor Kaiu7Menkheres9---
Djedkara Isesi8Tankheres44---
Unas9Onnos33---
Dynasty 6
1 The sum of the items given is 197 years, probably added 100 instead of 94 for Phiops
2 No mention of number of kings, nor the capital. Only names Nitocris as part of the Sixth dynasty
3 Eusebius' lists these kings in his fifth dynasty
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 6 kings of Memphis, 203 years1203 years2
Teti1Othoes301Othoes3-
Pepi I2Phios53   
Nemtiemsaf I3Methusouphis7   
Pepi II4Phiops944Phiops394
Nemtiemsaf II5Menthesouphis1   
Netjerikara6Nitokris ♀12?Nitokris ♀-
Dynasty 7
1 Armenian Eusebius has 75 years instead of 75 days
AfricanusEusebius
70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days 5 kings of Memphis ruled for 75 days1
No names mentioned
Dynasty 8
AfricanusEusebius
27 kings of Memphis, 146 years 5 kings of Memphis, 100 years
No names mentioned
Dynasty 9
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 19 kings of Heracleopolis, 409 years4 kings of Heracleopolis, 100 years
Wahkara Khety II1Akhthoës-1Akhthoës-
Dynasty 10
AfricanusEusebius
19 kings of Heracleopolis, 185 years
No names mentioned
Dynasty 11
1 Sixteen kings ruled for 43 years, then Ammenemes for 16 years.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 16 kings of Thebes, 43 years1
 1-16-431-16-43
Between dynasties
Ammenemes was placed outside the dynasties – and not part of the twelfth dynasty, due to errors by the redactor of the Epitome.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Amenemhat I16Ammenemes1616Ammenemes16
Dynasty 12
1 The correct sum is 182 years.

Note: The redactor of the Epitome failed to understand that Manetho's narrative contained not only four kings named Amenemmes, and three kings named Sestoris, but most of them also had coregencies with their sons. This confusion of the identity of the kings and their reigns resulted in disarray – from Ammenemes to Skemiophris.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years7 kings of Diospolis, 245 years1
Senusret I1Sesonkhosis461Sesonkhosis46
Amenemhat II2Ammanemes382Ammanemes38
Senusret II + Senusret III3Sesostris483Sesostris48
Amenemhat III4Lakhares84Lamaris8
?5Ammeres85-42
?6Ammenemes86-
Neferusobek7Skemiophris ♀47-
Dynasty 13
AfricanusEusebius
60 kings of Diospolis, 453 years
No names mentioned
Dynasty 14
1 Armenian Eusebius: 484 years. Syncellus noted that another copy of Eusebius had 284 years.
AfricanusEusebius
76 kings of Xois, 184 years 76 kings of Xois, 184 years1
No names mentioned
Dynasty 15
* Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. Placed here for the sake of comparision with Africanus.
1 Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. The the two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 from Eusebius' 17th dynasty: foreign kings from Phoenicia who seized Memphis, 103 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: Aphophis reigned before Arkhles.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius1
 6 shepherd kings from Phoenicia, 284 yearsKings of Diospolis, 250 years2
Salitis1Saites191Saites*19
Beon2Bnon442Bnon*40
Apachnas3Pakhnan61   
Khyan4Staan50   
Khamudy5Arkhles6143Archles*30
Apepi6Aphobis4933Aphophis*14
Dynasty 16
AfricanusEusebius
32 shepherd kings, 518 years 5 kings of Thebes, 190 years
No names mentioned
Dynasty 17
1 Eusebius' Dynasty 15 has: Kings of Diospolis, 250 years. The two dynasties were likely interchanged.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius1
 42 shepherd kings and 43 kings of Diospolis, 151 years4 shepherd kings of Memphis, 103 years
    1Saites*19
    2Bnon*40
    33Aphophis*14
    43Archles*30
Dynasty 18
The reigns and names of this dynasty is quite confusing. This was likely due to there being four Amenhoteps and four Thutmoses, which were misunderstood by the writer of the Epitome. Add to that the already obscure Amarna Period and then the coregencies between kings.
1 Josephus did not mention a dynasty, just presented the order of the reigns.
2 Added together for comparision (240 years plus 72 months.)
3 Armenian Eusebius: Misphres
4 Armenian Eusebius: 38 years
5 Josephus write that this ruler was female, which then can only mean Neferneferuaten.
6 Armenian Eusebius: 16 years
7 Armenian Eusebius: Athoris and Khenkheres names of Eusebius absent, Akherres follow directly after Akhenkherses
8 Probably Ramesses I of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.
9 Probably Ramesses II of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.
Pharaoh Africanus Eusebius Jerome Josephus 1
  16 kings of Diospolis, 263 years 14 kings of Diospolis, 348 years Kings of Diospolis, 348 years 246 years2
Ahmose I 1Amos- 1Amosis25 1Amosis25 Tethmosis25/4
Thutmose II 2Khebros13 2Khebron13 2Chebron13 Khebron13
Amenhotep I 3Amenophthis21 3Ammenophis21 3Ammenophis21 Amenophis20/7
Hatshepsut 4Amensis22         Amesses ♀21/9
Thutmose I 5Misaphris13 4Miphres312 4Mephres12 Mephres12/9
Thutmose III 6Misphragmouthosis26 5Misphragmouthosis26 5Mispharmuthosis26 Mephramuthosis25/10
Thutmose IV 7Touthmosis9 6Touthmosis9 6Thmosis9 Thmosis9/8
Amenhotep II 8Amenophis31 7Amenophis31 7Ammenophis31 Amenophis30/10
Amenhotep III 9Oros37 8Oros364 8Orus38 Oros36/5
Neferneferuaten5 10Akherres32 9Akhenkherses126 9Achencheres12 Akenkheres ♀12/1
Tutankhamun? 11Rhathos6 10Athoris739 10Achoris9 Rhathotis9
? 12Khebres12 11Khenkheres716 11Chenchres16 Akenkheres12/5
? 13Akherres12 12Akherres8 12Acherres8 Akenkheres12/3
?     13Kherres15 13Cherres15   
Horemheb 14Armesis5 14Armais5 14Armais5 Armais4/1
  15Rhamesses81 15Rhamesses968 15Remesses68   
  16Amenophath19 16Amenophis40 16Menophis40   
Dynasty 19
1 The sum of the items given is 204 years
2 Armenian Eusebius has 8 years
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 6 kings of Diospolis, 209 years15 kings of Diospolis, 194 years
Seti I1Sethos511Sethos55
Ramesses II2Rhapsakes612Rhampses66
Merenptah3Amenephthes203Ammenephthis402
?4Rhamesses60   
Amenmesse5Ammenemnes54Ammenemes26
Tausret6Thouoris75Thouoris7
Dynasty 20
AfricanusEusebius
12 kings of Thebes, 135 years 12 kings of Thebes, 178 years
No names mentioned
Dynasty 21
1 The sum of the items given is 114 years
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 7 kings of Tanis, 130 years17 kings of Tanis, 130 years
Smendes I1Smendes261Smendis26
Psusennes I2Psousennes462Psousennes41
Amenemnesut3Nephelkheres43Nepherkheres4
Amenemope4Amenophthis94Ammenophthis9
Osochor5Osokhor65Osokhor6
Siamun6Psinakhes96Psinakhes9
Psusennes II7Psousennes147Psousennes35
Dynasty 22
1 The sum of the items given is 116 years
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years13 kings of Bubastis, 49 years
Shoshenq I1Sesonkhosis211Sesonkhosis21
Osorkon I2Osorthon152Osorthon15
-3-5-25   
Takelot I6Takelothis133Takelothis13
-7-9-42   
Dynasty 23
1 The name Zet might be a contraction of ζητειται ("there is a question"), with the implication that the name is uncertain/unknown.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 4 kings of Tanis, 89 years3 kings of Tanis, 44 years
Pedubast I1Petubates401Petubastis25
Osorkon III2Osorkho82Osorthon9
?3Psammus103Psammus10
 4Zet131   
Dynasty 24
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Bakenrenef1Bokhkhoris61Bokhkhoris44
Dynasty 25
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years3 Ethiopian kings, 44 years
Shabaka1Sabakon81Sabakon12
Shebitko2Sebikhos142Sebikhos12
Taharqa3Tarkos183Tarakos20
Dynasty 26
1 Armenian Eusebius has 18 years.
2 Armenian Eusebius has 44 years.
3 Armenian Eusebius has 6 years.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Sais, 150 years, 6 months9 kings of Sais, 167 years
    1Ammeris the Ethiopian121
?1Stephinates72Stephinathis7
?2Nekhepsos63Nekhepsos6
?3Nekhao84Nekhao8
Psamtik I4Psammetikhos545Psammetikhos452
Necho II5Nekhao II66Nekhao II33
Psamtik II6Psammouthis67Psammouthis17
Apries7Ouaphris198Ouaphris25
Amasis8Amosis449Amosis42
Psamtik III9Psammekherites6 m   
Dynasty 27
1 Armenian Eusebius has 19 months instead of years.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 Persian kings, 124 years, 4 months8 Persian kings, 120 years, 4 months
Cambyses II1Kambyses61Kambyses3
    2Magoi7 m
Darius I2Dareios363Dareios36
Xerxes I3Xerxes the Great214Xerxes21
Artabanos4Artabanos7 m---
Artaxerxes I5Artaxerxes415Artaxerxes40
Xerxes II6Xerxes2 m6Xerxes II2 m
Sogdianos7Sogdianos7 m7Sogdianos7 m
Darius II8Dareios198Dareios191
Dynasty 28
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Amyrtaeus1Amurteos61Amurtaios6
Dynasty 29
1 Reigns equal the sum of the five listed kings, despite summary mentioning only four, suggesting one was an usurper.
2 Armenian Eusebius place Mouthis directly after Psammouthis.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 4 kings of Mendes, 20 years, 4 months4 kings of Mendes, 21 years, 4 months1
Nepherites I1Nepherites61Nepherites6
Achoris2Akhoris132Akhoris13
Psammuthis3Psammouthis13Psammouthis1
Nepherites II4Nepherites4 m4Nepherites4 m
    5Mouthis 21
Dynasty 30
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years3 kings of Sebennytos, 20 years
Nectanebo I1Nektanebes181Nektanebes10
Djedhor Teos I2Teos22Teos2
Nectanebo II3Nektanebus183Nektanebos8
Dynasty 31
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 Persian kings, 9 years3 Persian kings, 16 years
Artaxerxes III1Okhos21Okhos6
Arses2Arses32Arses4
Darius III3Dareios43Dareios6

The lists of Africanus and Eusebius both end with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.



Bibliography

  • : Eusebius Werke 5: Die Chronik aus dem Armenischen übersetzt mit textkritischem Kommentar, GCS 20. (Leipzig: 1911)
  • and : The Chronography of George Synkellos, (Oxford: 2002)
  • : Manetho, (Cambridge, Mass; London: 1940, Ed. 1964)
  • : Georgii Syncelli Ecloga chronographica, (Berlin, Boston: 1984)

 

With 2335 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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