Comparing the king lists of Manetho

More than two millenia has passed since Manetho wrote his Aegyptiaca in Egypt. The transmission of the original manuscript has not been easy, nor is it wholly trustworthy.

As the lists are straightforward, tabulating them together is easy. Discrepancies naturally occur, from errors in copying, misreading the original, to intentional changes for religious purposes.

Africanus is generally considered more trustworthy than Eusebius, because his edition is more complete and was written a hundred years prior to Eusebius, and might have been less 'tainted' by earlier versions of the Epitome that were closer to the original text of Manetho.

The transcription of the word ka became kheres in Greek, and the -ra at the end of a name was dropped, so that Men-kau-raMen-kheres.

Dynasty 1

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings, 253 years18 kings, 2522 years3
Narmer1Menes621Menes604
Aha2Athothis572Athotis27
Djer3Kenkenes313Kenkenes39
Djet4Ouenephes234Ouenephes42
Den5Ousaphaidos205Ousaphais20
Adjib6Miebidos266Niebais26
Semerkhet7Semempses187Semempses518
Qa'a8Bienekhes268Oubienthes26
1 The correct sum is 263 years
2 The correct sum is 258 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: 270 years
4 Armenian Eusebius: 30 years.
5 Armenian Eusebius: Memphses.

Dynasty 2

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Memphis, 302 years9 kings, 297 years
Hotepsekhemwy1Boethos381Bokhos-
Nebra2Kaiekhos392Khoös1-
Ninetjer3Binothris473Biophis-
Wadjnes4Tlas174--
Senedj5Sethenes415--
?6Khaeres176--
Sneferka7Nepherkheres257--
Neferkasokar8Sesokhris488Sesokhris48
Khasekhemwy9Kheneres309Kheneres30
1 Armenian Eusebius: Kekhoos

Dynasty 3

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Memphis, 214 years8 kings of Memphis, 198 years
Nebka1Nekherophes281Nekherokhis-
Djoser2Tosorthros292Sesorthos-
Sekhemkhet3Tyreis73--
Mesochris4Mesokhris174--
?5Souphis165--
?6Tosertasis196--
?7Akhes427--
?8Sephouris308--
?9Kerpheres26   

Dynasty 4

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings of Memphis, 277 years117 kings of Memphis, 448 years
Snoferu1Soris29---
Khufu2Souphis633Souphis-
Khafra3Souphis66---
Menkaura4Menkheres63---
Djedefra5Rhatoises25---
Baufra6Bikheres22---
Shepseskaf7Seberkheres7---
Thamphthis8Thamphthis9---
1 The correct sum is 284 years

Dynasty 5

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 kings of Elephantine, 248 years131 kings of Elephantine, 100 years2
Userkaf1Ouserkheres281Othoës3-
Sahura2Sephres13---
Neferirkara I Kakai3Nepherkheres20---
Shepseskara Netjeruser4Sisires74Phiops394
Neferefra Isi5Kheres20---
Niuserra Ini6Rhathoures44---
Menkauhor Kaiu7Menkheres9---
Djedkara Isesi8Tankheres44---
Unas9Onnos33---
1 The sum of the items given is 218 years.
2 Eusebius simply added 100 years for this dynasty in the total with the previous dynasties
3 Eusebius' fifth dynasty kings actually belong to the sixth

Dynasty 6

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 6 kings of Memphis, 203 years1203 years2
Teti1Othoes301Othoes3-
Pepi I2Phios53   
Nemtiemsaf I3Methusouphis7   
Pepi II4Phiops944Phiops394
Nemtiemsaf II5Menthesouphis1   
Netjerikara6Nitokris ♀12?Nitokris ♀-
1 The sum of the items given is 197 years, probably added 100 instead of 94 for Phiops
2 No mention of number of kings, nor the capital. Only names Nitocris as part of the Sixth dynasty
3 Eusebius' lists these kings in his fifth dynasty

Dynasty 7

AfricanusEusebius
70 kings of Memphis ruled for 70 days 5 kings of Memphis ruled for 75 days1
No names mentioned
1 Armenian Eusebius has 75 years instead of 75 days

Dynasty 8

AfricanusEusebius
27 kings of Memphis, 146 years 5 kings of Memphis, 100 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 9

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 19 kings of Herakleopolis , 409 years4 kings of Herakleopolis , 100 years
Wahkara Khety II1Akhthoës-1Akhthoës-

Dynasty 10

AfricanusEusebius
19 kings of Herakleopolis , 185 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 11

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 16 kings of Thebes, 43 years1
 #-43#-43
1 Sixteen kings ruled for 43 years, then Ammenemes for 16 years.

Between dynasties

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Amenemhat I16Ammenemes1616Ammenemes16
Ammenemes was placed outside the dynasties – and not part of the Twelfth Dynasty, due to errors by the redactor of the Epitome.

Dynasty 12

1 The correct sum is 182 years.

Note: The redactor of the Epitome failed to understand that Manetho's narrative contained not only four kings named Amenemmes, and three kings named Sestoris, but most of them also had coregencies with their sons. This confusion of the identity of the kings and their reigns resulted in disarray – from Ammenemes to Skemiophris.
PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years7 kings of Diospolis, 245 years1
Senusret I1Sesonkhosis461Sesonkhosis46
Amenemhat II2Ammanemes382Ammanemes38
Senusret II + Senusret III3Sesostris483Sesostris48
Amenemhat III4Lakhares84Lamaris8
?5Ammeres85-42
?6Ammenemes86-
Neferusobek7Skemiophris ♀47-

Dynasty 13

AfricanusEusebius
60 kings of Diospolis, 453 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 14

AfricanusEusebius
76 kings of Xois, 184 years 76 kings of Xois, 184 years1
No names mentioned
1 Armenian Eusebius: 484 years. Syncellus noted that another copy of Eusebius had 284 years.

Dynasty 15

PharaohAfricanusEusebius1
 6 shepherd kings from Phoenicia, 284 yearsKings of Diospolis, 250 years2
Salitis1Saites191Saites*19
Beon2Bnon442Bnon*40
Apachnas3Pakhnan61   
Khyan4Staan50   
Khamudy5Arkhles6143Archles*30
Apepi6Aphobis4933Aphophis*14
* Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. Placed here for the sake of comparision with Africanus.
1 Eusebius place these kings in his seventeenth dynasty. The the two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 from Eusebius' 17th dynasty: foreign kings from Phoenicia who seized Memphis, 103 years
3 Armenian Eusebius: Aphophis reigned before Arkhles.

Dynasty 16

AfricanusEusebius
32 shepherd kings, 518 years 5 kings of Thebes, 190 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 17

PharaohAfricanusEusebius1
 43 shepherd kings and
43 kings of Diospolis (Thebes), 151 years2
4 shepherd kings of Memphis, 103 years
----1Saites*19
----2Bnon*40
----3Aphophis*14
----4Archles*30
1 Eusebius' Dynasty XV has: Kings of Diospolis, 250 years. The two dynasties were likely interchanged.
2 The redactor of the epitome clearly misunderstood a summation by compounding two separate dynasties into one.

Dynasty 18

The reigns and names of this dynasty is quite confusing. This was likely due to there being four Amenhoteps and four Thutmoses, which were misunderstood by the writer of the Epitome. Add to that the already obscure Amarna Period and then the coregencies between kings.
PharaohAfricanusEusebiusJeromeJosephus 1
  16 kings of Diospolis,
263 years
14 kings of Diospolis,2
348 years
Kings of Diospolis,
348 years
246 years3
Ahmose I 1Amos- 1Amosis25 1Amosis25 Tethmosis25/4
Thutmose II 2Khebros13 2Khebron13 2Chebron13 Khebron13
Amenhotep I 3Amenophthis244 3Ammenophis21 3Ammenophis21 Amenophis20/7
Hatshepsut 4Amensis22         Amesses ♀21/9
Thutmose I 5Misaphris13 4Miphres512 4Mephres12 Mephres12/9
Thutmose III 6Misphragmouthosis26 5Misphragmouthosis26 5Mispharmuthosis26 Mephramuthosis25/10
Thutmose IV 7Touthmosis9 6Touthmosis9 6Thmosis9 Thmosis9/8
Amenhotep II 8Amenophis31 7Amenophis31 7Ammenophis31 Amenophis30/10
Amenhotep III 9Oros37 8Oros366 8Orus38 Oros36/5
Neferneferuaten7 10Akherres32 9Akhenkherses128 9Achencheres12 Akenkheres ♀12/1
Tutankhamun? 11Rhathos6 10Athoris939 10Achoris9 Rhathotis9
? 12Khebres12 11Khenkheres916 11Chenchres16 Akenkheres12/5
? 13Akherres12 12Akherres8 12Acherres8 Akenkheres12/3
?     13Kherres15 13Cherres15   
Horemheb 14Armesis5 14Armais5 14Armais5 Armais4/1
  15Rhamesses101 15Rhamesses1168 15Remesses68   
  16Amenophath19 16Amenophis40 16Menophis40   
1 Josephus did not indicate any kind of dynastic numbering, and thus no dynastic breaks.
2 The list contain 16 kings, not 14.
3 Added together for comparision (240 years plus 72 months.)
4 Goar emended this to 21 to fit with the summation: 'Total 69 years from Amos to the rule of Misphragmouthosis'.
5 Armenian Eusebius: Misphres
6 Armenian Eusebius: 38 years
7 Josephus write that this ruler was female, which then can only mean Neferneferuaten.
8 Armenian Eusebius: 16 years
9 Armenian Eusebius: Athoris and Khenkheres names of Eusebius absent, Akherres follow directly after Akhenkherses
10 Probably Ramesses I of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.
11 Probably Ramesses II of the 19th dynasty, based on the length of his known reign.

Dynasty 19

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 6 kings of Diospolis, 209 years15 kings of Diospolis, 194 years
Seti I1Sethos511Sethos55
Ramesses II2Rhapsakes612Rhampses66
Merenptah3Amenephthes203Ammenephthis402
?4Rhamesses60   
Amenmesse5Ammenemnes54Ammenemes26
Tausret6Thouoris75Thouoris7
1 The sum of the items given is 204 years
2 Armenian Eusebius has 8 years

Dynasty 20

AfricanusEusebius
12 kings of Thebes, 135 years 12 kings of Thebes, 178 years
No names mentioned

Dynasty 21

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 7 kings of Tanis, 130 years17 kings of Tanis, 130 years
Smendes I1Smendes261Smendis26
Psusennes I2Psousennes462Psousennes41
Amenemnesut3Nephelkheres43Nepherkheres4
Amenemope4Amenophthis94Ammenophthis9
Osochor5Osokhor65Osokhor6
Siamun6Psinakhes96Psinakhes9
Psusennes II7Psousennes147Psousennes35
1 The sum of the items given is 114 years

Dynasty 22

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Bubastis, 120 years13 kings of Bubastis, 49 years
Shoshenq I1Sesonkhosis211Sesonkhosis21
Osorkon I2Osorthon152Osorthon15
-3-5-25   
Takelot I6Takelothis133Takelothis13
-7-9-42   
1 The sum of the items given is 116 years

Dynasty 23

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 4 kings of Tanis, 89 years3 kings of Tanis, 44 years
Pedubast I1Petubates401Petubastis25
Osorkon III2Osorkho82Osorthon9
?3Psammus103Psammus10
 4Zet131   
1 The name Zet might be a contraction of Ζητειται ("there is a question"), with the implication that the name is uncertain/unknown.

Dynasty 24

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Bakenrenef1Bokhkhoris61Bokhkhoris44

Dynasty 25

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 Ethiopian kings, 40 years3 Ethiopian kings, 44 years
Shabaka1Sabakon81Sabakon12
Shebitko2Sebikhos142Sebikhos12
Taharqa3Tarkos183Tarakos20

Dynasty 26

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 9 kings of Sais, 150 years, 6 months9 kings of Sais, 167 years
    1Ammeris the Ethiopian121
?1Stephinates72Stephinathis7
?2Nekhepsos63Nekhepsos6
?3Nekhao84Nekhao8
Psamtik I4Psammetikhos545Psammetikhos452
Necho II5Nekhao II66Nekhao II33
Psamtik II6Psammouthis67Psammouthis17
Apries7Ouaphris198Ouaphris25
Amasis8Amosis449Amosis42
Psamtik III9Psammekherites6m   
1 Armenian Eusebius has 18 years.
2 Armenian Eusebius has 44 years.
3 Armenian Eusebius has 6 years.

Dynasty 27

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 8 Persian kings, 124 years, 4 months8 Persian kings, 120 years, 4 months
Cambyses II1Kambyses61Kambyses3
    2Magoi7m
Darius I2Dareios363Dareios36
Xerxes I3Xerxes the Great214Xerxes21
Artabanos4Artabanos7m---
Artaxerxes I5Artaxerxes415Artaxerxes40
Xerxes II6Xerxes2m6Xerxes II2m
Sogdianos7Sogdianos7m7Sogdianos7m
Darius II8Dareios198Dareios191
1 Armenian Eusebius has 19 months instead of years.

Dynasty 28

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
Amyrtaeus1Amyrteos61Amurtaios6

Dynasty 29

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 4 kings of Mendes, 20 years, 4 months4 kings of Mendes, 21 years, 4 months1
Nepherites I1Nepherites61Nepherites6
Achoris2Akhoris132Akhoris13
Psammuthis3Psammouthis13Psammouthis1
Nepherites II4Nepherites4m4Nepherites4m
    5Mouthis 21
1 Reigns equal the sum of the five listed kings, despite summary mentioning only four, suggesting one was an usurper.
2 Armenian Eusebius place Mouthis directly after Psammouthis.

Dynasty 30

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 kings of Sebennytos, 38 years3 kings of Sebennytos, 20 years
Nectanebo I1Nektanebes181Nektanebes10
Djedhor Teos I2Teos22Teos2
Nectanebo II3Nektanebus183Nektanebos8

Dynasty 31

PharaohAfricanusEusebius
 3 Persian kings, 9 years3 Persian kings, 16 years
Artaxerxes III1Okhos21Okhos6
Arses2Arses32Arses4
Darius III3Dareios43Dareios6

The lists of Africanus and Eusebius both end with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

Bibliography

  • : Eusebius Werke 5: Die Chronik aus dem Armenischen übersetzt mit textkritischem Kommentar, GCS 20. (Leipzig: 1911)
  • and : The Chronography of George Synkellos, (Oxford: 2002)
  • : Manetho, (Cambridge, Mass; London: 1940, Ed. 1964)
  • : Georgii Syncelli Ecloga chronographica, (Berlin, Boston: 1984)
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Dynasty – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek dynasteia (δυναστεια)

OK – Old Kingdom

MK – Middle Kingdom

NK – New Kingdom

SIP – Second Intermediate Period

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