Amenemhat I

Also known as: Amenemhet I Dynasty XII

Amenemhat I was not of royal birth, and somehow managed to capture the throne. It is possible that he was Menthuhotep IV's vizier named Amenemhat, who led an expedition to Wadi Hammamat. The king died, it is unknown if by Amenemhat's hand or by some accident. Either way, he founded the great Twelfth dynasty.

Amenemhat I moved the capital from Thebes to the lost city of Itjtawy, thought to be located close to the pyramids of Amenemhat I and his son Senusret I.

Reign of Amenemhat I
AE Chronology1939–1910
von Beckerath1976–1947
Shaw1985–1965
Dodson1994–1964
Malek1980–1951
Arnold1991–1962
Grimal1991–1962
Franke1938–1909
Redford1991–1962
Manetho (Eusebius)16 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Amenemhat I: Sehotep ib tawy
Sehotep ib tawy
s-ḥtp-ib-tꜢwi
The one who has appeased the heart of the Two Lands
s-Htp:ib:N17:N17
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Amenemhat I: Wehem mesut
Wehem mesut
wḥm-mswt
The one who has repeated births
wHm-ms:t-w
Naville, Bubastis, plate XXXIII A
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 124 a27
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:H2
Nebty name
Nebty name of Amenemhat I: Sehotep ib tawy
Sehotep ib tawy
s-ḥtp-ib-tꜢwi
The one who has appeased the heart of the Two Lands
s-Htp:ib:N17:N17
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1: N1
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Amenemhat I: Wehem mesut
Wehem mesut
wḥm-mswt
The one who has repeated births
wHm-ms-w&t
Petrie Museum, UC14785
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:N2
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Amenemhat I: Bik nebu sema
Bik nebu sema
bik-nbw-zmꜢ
The uniter
F36*G5:nbw
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Amenemhat I: Bik nebu mes
Bik nebu mes
bik-nbw-ms
ms*G5:nbw
Benihassan Tomb 2, Large Incription A
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 124a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:G2
Throne name
Throne name of Amenemhat I: Sehotep ib Ra
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
The one who the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:ib
Benihassan Tomb 2
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 124 a28
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat I: Sehotep ib Ra
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
The one who the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:t*p-ib
Abydos king list 59
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:T2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat I: Sehotep ib Ra
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
The one who the heart of Ra
ra-s-Htp:t-p-ib-Z1
Saqqara king list 15
. Ramesside Inscriptions, III, 481 (15)
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat I: ..pib(ra)
..pib(ra)
//-p-ib
..p-ib-1
Royal Canon of Turin 6.20
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), V:20
Birth name
Birth name of Amenemhat I: Amenemhat
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt
Early reign
ZÄS , 92, plate 3
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Birth name of Amenemhat I: Amenemhat
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:t
Benihassan Tomb 2, Large Incription A
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 124 b29
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Birth name of Amenemhat I: Amenemhat
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in the front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:a
Mariette, Karnak, plate 8d+e
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 82-83, 1:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xi, 1 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes
Eusebius xi Aμμενεμης Ammenemes Ammenemes 16 years
Eratosthenes 32 Σταμμενεμης α Stammenemes I Stammenemes I 26 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 82–83
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 19–23
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 253–265
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 57–58

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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