Artaxerxes III

 Dynasty XXXI

Artaxerxes III is not attested in hieroglyphic inscriptions, but his name is present in demotic, in the Demotic Chronicle papyrus, and on coins.

Reign of Artaxerxes III
AE Chronology343–338
von Beckerath342–337
Manetho2 years


The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

None known

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

Africanus xxxi, 1 Ωχος Okhos Ochus 2 years
Eusebius xxxi, 1 Ωχος Okhos Ochus 2 years


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 231
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 173
Spiegelberg, Die sogenannte demotische Chronik des Pap. 215 der Bibliothèque Nationale zu Paris, Leipzig, 1914.


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The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Ancient historians

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