Hatshepsut

Also known as: Hatchepsut Dynasty XVIII

When Thutmose II died Thutmose III was too young to rule, so Hatshepsut became his regent, and ultimately her rise in power was complete when she became pharaoh. She never denied kingship to young Thutmose III, they rather seem to have been on very friendly terms. She was only the second queen to have ruled Egypt with certainty – the first in some 300 years. Josephus mentions that Amessis was a woman, but Africanus fail to mention that Amensis was female.

For unknown reasons, Hatshepsut was erased from official monuments twenty years after her death, during the later part of Tuthmose III's reign. Strangely enough, only the more visible and accessible images of her were erased or defaced. She was not included in the Ramesside king lists of Seti I and Ramesses II.

Reign of Hatshepsut
AE Chronology1479–1458
von Beckerath1479–1458
Shaw1473–1458
Dodson1472–1457
Malek1479–1457
Arnold1473–1458
Grimal1478–1458
Redford1502–1482
Manetho (Josephus)21y 9m
Manetho (Africanus)22 years
Highest attestationYear 20

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Hatshepsut: Useret kau
Useret kau
wsr.t-kꜢ.w
Mighty of Ka's
wsr-s-t:kA-kA:kA
Karnak Obelisks E and F
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 22-24
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:H
Nebty name
Nebty name of Hatshepsut: Wadjet renput
Wadjet renput
wꜢḏ.t-rnp.wt
Flourishing of years
wAD:t-rnp-rnp-rnp
Karnak Obelisk E
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 22
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:N
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Hatshepsut: Iti tau nebu
Iti tau nebu
iti-tꜢw-nbw
Who has seized all lands
V15-N17:N17:N17:nb-Z3
Karnak fallen Obelisk F
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 24
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Hatshepsut: Netjeret khau
Netjeret khau
nṯrt-ḫꜤw
Divine of appearance
nTr-t:xa:Z2
Karnak Obelisk E
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 22
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Hatshepsut: Netjeret khau
Netjeret khau
nṯrt-ḫꜤw
Divine of appearance
nTr-t:r:T-xa:a-w
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 261
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:G2
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Hatshepsut: Sankh ibu
Sankh ibu
s-Ꜥnḫ-ibw
Who has sustained minds
s-anx-ib:ib:ib
Karnak fallen Obelisk F
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 24
Throne name
Throne name of Hatshepsut: Maat ka Ra
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-C10A-kA
Karnak Obelisk E
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 22-23
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Hatshepsut: Maat ka Ra
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-H6-kA
Saucer from tomb of Thutmose IV, CG46004
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 381
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:T2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Hatshepsut: Maat ka Ra
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
The true one of the ka of Ra
ra-U4:a-t:kA
Astronomical chart in Tomb of Senenmut
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number: 48.105.52
Birth name
Birth name of Hatshepsut: Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
imn-ẖnmt ḥꜢ.t-šps.wt
United with Amun, foremost of noble ladies
i-mn:n-W9:t-HAt-t&A51-Z3
Karnak Obelisk E
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 22-23
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Birth name of Hatshepsut: Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
Khnemet Amun Hat shepsut
imn-ẖnm ḥꜢt-šps.wt
United with Amun, foremost of noble ladies
i-mn:n-W9:HAt-A51
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 397
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:E3
Birth name variant
Birth name of Hatshepsut: Hat shepsut
Hat shepsut
ḥꜢ.t-šps.wt
Foremost of noble ladies
HAt:t-A51-t:Z2
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 398
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 134-135, 5:E1

The complete titulary

Sources containing all five names of the royal titulary

Karnak obelisk E, north & west faces

Champollion, Monuments, IV, 314; Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 22; Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, II, 81–82; Rosellini, Monumenti, IV, 38–39
Karnak obelisk E, south base inscription

Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 24d; Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, II, 81–82
Dedication stela of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III

Vatican stela 130, cat. 22780; Sethe, Urkunden der 18. Dynastie, IV, 311; Champollion, Notices, II, 700-701; Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, II, 535

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 4 Αμενσις Amensis Amensis 22 years
Josephus 95 Aμεσσης Amesses ♀ Amesses ♀ 21 years, 9 months

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 134–135
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 104–110
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 236–252
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 98

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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