Setnakht in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty, a.k.a. Setnakhte

The Harris papyrus mentions a time of anarchy and chaos (i.e. the last years of the nineteenth dynasty) from which Setnakht rose and restored order, gaining the throne in the process. He was probably a distant relative of the extended Ramesside royal family, or less likely, an usurper. His son Ramesses III would be the last great pharaoh of the New Kingdom. Manetho does not mention any names for the kings of this dynasty.

Precedessor
Tausret

Successor
Ramesses III

Reign of Setnakht
AE Chronology1190–1188
v. Beckerath1186–1183
Shaw1186–1184
Dodson1187–1185
Arnold1196–1194
Malek1186–1184
Grimal1188–1186
Redford1200–1198
Highest attestationYear 3-4

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht wer pehty  The Dual King User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun  Son of Ra Set nakht(e), merer Amun-Ra

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥti
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:r-F9*F9:t*Z4
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 28, plate 49
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:H
Horus name variant
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥti
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:r-F9:F9
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny, The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXXIII (271)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 1:7

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Tut khau mi Tatenen
twt-ḫꜤw-mi-ṯꜢ-ṯnn
The image of appearances like Tatenen
t-w&t-A53-xa:a:Z2-mi-C18
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 28, plate 49
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:N

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Sekhem khepesh der heruf
sḫm-ḫpš dr-[ḥr]w.f
Powerful of effectiveness, who has subdued his enemies
sxm-Aa15:D40-x*p:N37:xpS-d:r:D40-r:q-i-i-Z1:Z1*Z1-A14:f
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 28, plate 49
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Hai pedjut 9 an em nesyt
ḥꜤi-pḏt Ꜥn-m-snyt
Who has struck the Nine Bows, beautiful in kingship
pD:3*3:3-A24-i-a:n-m-sw-i-i
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny, The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXXIII (271)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-C12-N36:xa:Z2-stp&n&ra
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 206d
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra, beloved of Amun
C2\-wsr-C12-N36:xa*3-stp&n&ra
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 5:1
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T4
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-C12-N36:xa*Z2-stp&n&ra
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 4:1,3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T5
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-xa:3-stp&n&ra-i-mn:n:N36
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 206a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T6
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
ra-wsr-xa:a-Y1-stp&n&ra-mr-i-mn:n-A40
Papyrus Harris, I, 75,7
Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, V, 91:15-16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T7
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra
ra-wsr-xa:Z2-stp&n&ra
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 28, plate 49
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T1
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Powerful are the forms of Ra, chosen of Ra
<1--0>-ra-wsr-xa:a*Y1-i-i-stp&n&ra#2-#b-<0--2>-#e
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 1:15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T2
Throne name variant
User khau Ra, mery Amun
wsr-ḫꜤw-rꜤ mri-imn
Powerful are the forms of Ra, belived of Amun
ra-wsr-xa:3-N36:(i-mn:n)
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 52
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 5:16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:T3

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Set nakht(e), merer Amun-Ra
stẖ-nḫt(w) mrr-imn-rꜤ
Seth is victorious, beloved of Amun-Ra
ra-C12\-C7A-D40:N36-r:r
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 206d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:E3
Birth name variant
Set nakht(e), merer Amun-Ra
stẖ-nḫt(w) mrr-imn-rꜤ
Seth is victorious, beloved of Amun-Ra
ra-E21:D40-A40-U7:r*r-A2-i-mn:n:U7-A40
Papyrus Harris, I, 75,7
Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, V, 91:15-16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:E5
Birth name variant
Set nakht(e), merer Amun-Ra
stẖ-nḫt(w) mrr-imn-rꜤ
Seth is victorious, beloved of Amun-Ra
ra-C12\-C7A-N36:t:D40-N36:r:r
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Set nakht(e), merer Amun
stẖ-nḫt(w) mrr-imn
Seth is victorious, beloved of Amun
C12\-C7A-N36:r:r-D40
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 28, plate 49
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Set nakht(e), merer Amun-Ra
stẖ-nḫt(w) mrr-imn
Seth is victorious, beloved of Amun-Ra
U6\-C12\-ra-C7A-D40:t-r:r
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 3: (4b)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 1:E4

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 152–156
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 164–165
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 126–127
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 407–409
PLEASE NOTE
There might be errors on this page.
Make sure you use the correct source!
Yes, you would be surprised...