The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the period when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of achievement. The royal capital of Egypt during was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. It is perhaps best known, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Dynasty III

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Nebka Hen Nekht (not in use anymore)
2 Djoser Zezer, Zozer, Djeser 2592–2566
3 Sekhemkhet Djosertety, Djoserteti, Djoserty 2565–2559
4 Hudjefa II
5 Mesochris
6 Nebkara Nebkare
7 Neferkara Neferkare
8 Huni ?–2544

Dynasty IV

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Sneferu Snefru, Snofru 2543–2510
2 Khufu Cheops 2509–2483
3 Radjedef Djedefra, Djedefre 2482–2475
4 Khafra Khafre, Chephren, Khefren 2472–2448
5 Menkaura Menkaure, Mykerinos, Mycerinus 2447–2442
6 Shepseskaf 2441–2436
7 Baufra Baefra, Baufre, Baka, Bicheris, Bikka 2474–2473
8 Thamphthis Djedefptah, Ptahdjedef
9 Hordjedef Djedefhor

Dynasty V

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Userkaf 2435–2429
2 Sahura Sahure 2428–2416
3 Neferirkara I Kakai Nerferirkare I 2415–2405
4 Shepseskara Netjeruser Shepseskare
5 Neferefra Isi Neferefre, Raneferef 2403
6 Niuserra Ini Niuserre 2402–2374
7 Menkauhor Kaiu Horikau, Ikauhor 2373–2366
8 Djedkara Isesi Djedkare Isesi 2365–2322
9 Unas Wenis, Unis 2321–2306

Dynasty VI

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Teti 2305–2279
2 Userkara Userkare, Woserkare
3 Pepi I Pepy I 2276–2228
4 Nemtiemsaf I Nemtyemsaf I, Merenre I 2227–2217
5 Pepi II Pepy II, Neferkare 2216–2153
6 Nemtiemsaf II Nemtyemsaf II, Merenre II 2152

End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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