Turin king list: Column 4

Quick navigation
Column
26 rows — 25 kings.

Twenty-six continuous rows with the full or partial names of fourteen kings. At the bottom, there is a summation of dynasties I–V. The fragments in this column must be adjusted so that the written text is in alignment with the other columns. Older reconstructions fail to make certain that the text of column 4 start at the same vertical position as the other columns. The column is extra wide to accomodate the lifetime of the kings.

Curiously, the kings of the Fourth Dynasty in the Abydos king list holds six kings (20-25), Saqqara nine (43-35) and the Canon eight (4.9-16), indicating incompletely preserved records. Centuries later, scribes compiling Source B (third to sixth dynasties) of Vorlage A, accessed the archives and added the kings of the Fourth Dynasty. The discrepancy between the king lists is puzzling.

Table 1: Overview of column 4
RowsRemarksKings
1–3Second Dynasty (continued)3
4–8Third Dynasty5
9–16Fourth Dynasty8
17–25Fifth Dynasty9
26Summation for First through Fifth dynasties
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 4.1
the Turin king list 4.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Neferkasokar 8 years 3 months x days his lifetime 10
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-skr rnpt 8 Ꜣbdw 3 hrw x ... 10

KingNeferkasokar (15th king)DynastyII (7)
GardinerIII 1Fragment18
Only the lower part of the ten-sign at the end is evident, meaning the number could be a 10, 20 or 30.1 The name is unlikely to be historical, but whether it is fictious, or a false etymology of an unidentifiable name remain unknown.2
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Saqqara Canon 50nfr-kꜢ-skrNeferkasokar
Africanus: II (7)NεφερχερηςNepherkherēs (25 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (III 1 c)
2.   Ryholt 2004: 151
Column 4.2
the Turin king list 4.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Hudjefa, 11 years, 8 months, 4 days, his lifetime 34 years ...
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnpt 11 Ꜣbdw 8 hrw 4 ꜤḥꜤ-f-m-Ꜥnḫ rnpt 34 Ꜣbdw x ...

KingHudjefa I (16th king)DynastyII (8)
GardinerIII 2Fragment18 (+50?)
Hudjefa is a pseudonym of an illegible or damaged name.1 2 The upper part of the first ten-sign is missing, it uncertain if the sign was 10, 20, (or less probable 30.)3 The last number is clearly 34 years. A badly damaged Hudjefa also appears in the Saqqara Canon between Neferkasokar and Khasekhemwy. Gardiner's unplaced fr. 50 contain the only remaining patch,4 placing it at the end of column 4 make sense, as a patch is missing between fr. 18 and fr. 59. The rightmost part is the first row of Champollion's fragment Ff.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Saqqara Canon 49ḥw-ḏfꜢHudjefa
Africanus: II (8)ΣεσωχριςSesōkhris (48 years)
Eusebius: II (8)ΣεσωχριςSesōkhris (48 years)
1.   Goedicke, "King ḥwDf3", JEA 42 (1956): 50–53
2.   Helck 1956: 14ff.
3.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (III 2 c)
4.   Gardiner 1959: 18
Column 4.3
the Turin king list 4.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Bebti ... 27 years, 2 months, 1 day, his lifetime 40 years ...
nsw-bit bbti ... rnpt 27, Ꜣbdw 2 hrw 1 ꜤhꜤ=f m Ꜥnḫ rnpt 40 ...

KingKhasekhemwy (17th king)DynastyII (9)
GardinerIII 3Fragment18 (+50?)
The New Kingdom scribes interpreted an unknown name of Khasekhemwy from their sources differently, causing divergent names being used in the canons. The complete age numbers are lost as the papyrus break off. Gardiner's unplaced fr. 50 contain the only remaining patch,1 placing it at the end of column 4 make sense, as a patch is missing between fr. 18 and fr. 59. The rightmost part is the second row of Champollion's fragment Ff.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 14ḏꜢ-ḏꜢ-yDjadjay
Saqqara Canon 48bbtyBebety
Africanus: II (9)ΧενερηςKhenerēs (30 years)
Eusebius: II (9)ΧενερηςKhenerēs (30 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 18
Column 4.4
the Turin king list 4.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebka ... 19 years ... his lifetime ...
nsw-bit nb-kꜢ ... rnpt 19 ... ꜤḥꜤ f m Ꜥnḫ ...

KingNebka (18th king)DynastyIII (1)
GardinerIII 4Fragment18 + 32 (+50?)
Gardiner saw a clear trace of a one after the kꜢ-sign,1 which is absent in the facsimiles of Lepsius and Wilkinson. The ditto marks for lifetime seem to indicate that none existed, or perhaps it was simply a mistake by the scribe. The rightmost part is the first row of Champollion's fragment Gg.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 15nb-kꜢNebka
Saqqara Canon 45nb-kꜢ-rꜤNebkara
Africanus: III (1)NεχεροφηςNekherophēs (28 years)
Eusebius: III (1)ΝεχερωχιςNekherōkhis
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (III 4 a)
Column 4.5
the Turin king list 4.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djoserit, he acted as king for 19 years 1 month, his lifetime ...
nsw-bit ḏsr-it ir.n f m-nswyt rnpt 19 Ꜣbd 1 ꜤḥꜤ=f-m-Ꜥnḫ ...

KingDjoser (19th king)DynastyIII (2)
GardinerIII 5Fragment18 + 32 (+50?)
The name is certain with just one possible sign lost above the t. This is the only example in the king list where a title is written in red ink, likely due to the excellent reputation of Djoser in later times. The rightmost part is the second row of Champollion's fragment Gg.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 16ḏsr-sꜢDjosersa
Saqqara Canon 47ḏsrDjoser
Africanus: III (2)TοσορθροςTosorthros (29 years)
Eusebius: III (2)ΣεσορθοςSesorthos
Column 4.6
the Turin king list 4.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djoserti, he acted as king for 6 years x months ...
nsw-bit ḏsr-ti ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 6 Ꜣbdw ...

KingSekhemkhet (20th king)DynastyIII (3)
GardinerIII 6Fragment18 + 136 + 32
The absence of the rnpt ligature seems to indicate that the ditto mark stand for the entire length of reign formula, plus the year. The rightmost part is the third row of Champollion's fragment Gg.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 17ttiTeti
Saqqara Canon 46ḏsr-ttiDjoserteti
Africanus: III (3)TυρειςTyreis (7 years)
Column 4.7
the Turin king list 4.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Hudjefa, 6 years x months ...
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnpt 6 Ꜣbdw ...

KingHudjefa II (21st king)DynastyIII (4)
GardinerIII 7Fragment136 + 32 + 18
The first vertical stroke is likely a partial I10-sign (),1 but curiously there is no trace of the G1-sign ().2 The likely name would be Hudjefa, a pseudonym replacing an illegible or damaged name. The name Sedjes in the Abydos Canon derive from sḏsy, ‘it is damaged,’ just as ḥw-ḏfꜢ.3 The six years was assigned as the length of reign was damaged in a vorlage to the Canon. The meaning of the ditto mark(?) at the end is a curiosity.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 18sḏsSedjes
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 250
2.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (III 7 b)
3.   Helck 1956: 14-15
Column 4.8
the Turin king list 4.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Huni, life, prosperity and health, 24 years, the one who has built Seshem ...
nsw-bit ḥwni ... Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnpt 24 pꜢ-ḳd-sšm ...

KingHuni (22nd king)DynastyIII (5)
GardinerIII 8Fragment136 + 31 + 32 + 17 + 18
The sublinear sign on fr. 17 could be a I9-sign (f).1 The G17-sign (m) as seen by Gardiner does not seem to be present at the end of fr. 18. The rightmost part (fr. 31) is the first row of Champollion's fragment L.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Saqqara Canon 44ḥwniHuni
Palermo Stoneḥw-nswtHunisut
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (III 8 a); Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II,, No. 263
Column 4.9
the Turin king list 4.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Snofer(u), 24 years ...
nsw-bit snfr rnpt 24 ...

KingSneferu (23rd king)DynastyIV (1)
GardinerIII 9Fragment31 + 32 + 17
The opening cartouche is missing. A possible trace of the quail chick sign (G43, w) is visible on fr. 32. The rightmost part (fr. 31) is the second row of Champollion's fragment L.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 20s-nfr-wSneferu
Karnak Canon 2s-nfr-wSneferu
Saqqara Canon 43s-nfr-wSneferu
Africanus: IV (1)ΣωριςSōris (29 years)
Column 4.10
the Turin king list 4.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 23 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 23 ...

KingKhufu (24th king)DynastyIV (2)
GardinerIII 10Fragment32
The name is entirely lost, only a number of years remain. Khufu was the successor of his father Sneferu, which is known from contemporary records, and also seen in the canons of Abydos and Saqqara.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 21ḫfwKhufu
Saqqara Canon 42ḫwfwKhufu
Africanus: IV (2)ΣουφιςSouphis (63 years)
Eusebius: IV (3)ΣουφιςSouphis
Eratosthenes: 15ΣαωφιςSaōphis (29 years)
Herodotus: 124.1ΧεοπαKheopa
Column 4.11
the Turin king list 4.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ..., 8 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 8 ...

KingRadjedef (25th king)DynastyIV (3)
GardinerIII 11Fragment32
The name is entirely lost, only a couple number of years remain. Radjedef succeeded his father Khufu, and his name is found in the Abydos and Saqqara Canons, albeit with slightly varying names. This clearly indicate that his name would have been found here. Significantly, there is no ten-sign after the year-sign, indicating that he only reigned for eight years.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 22ḏd.f-rꜤRadjedef
Saqqara Canon 41ḏd.f-rꜤRadjedef
Africanus: IV (5)ΡατοισηςRhatoisēs (25 years)
Eratosthenes: 13ΡαυωσιςRhayōsis (13 years)
Column 4.12
the Turin king list 4.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Kha... x years
nsw-bit ... ḫꜤ ... rnpt x

KingKhafra (26th king)DynastyIV (4)
GardinerIII 12Fragment33 + 32
The trace of a N28-sign (ḫꜤ) must belong to Khafra, as he was the only Fourth Dynasty king using that sign in his name. The trace of a possible G43-sign (w),1 would explain its presence in the Saqqara Canon. No numbers are preserved.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 23ḫꜤ.f-rꜤKhafra
Saqqara Canon 40ḫꜤ.w-f-rꜤKhaufra
Africanus: IV (3)ΣουφιςSouphis (66 years)
Herodotus: 127.1ΧεφρηναKhephrēna
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 200
Column 4.13
the Turin king list 4.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... years
nsw-bit ... rnpt ...

KingBaufra (27th king)DynastyIV (5)
GardinerIII 13Fragment33 + 32
The name of the fifth king of the dynasty is lost. It is probable that records from the Old Kingdom were lost over time, resulting in a tradition based on historical facts, but altered for cultic or political reasons. However, as can be seen in many places in the Canon, kings were not supressed for being unpopular or ephemeral, while the cultic records omitted undesirable ancestors.1 The tradition of the pyramid builders overshadowed the ‘lesser’ kings of the dynasty, which over time, were simply lumped together at the end of the dynasty. According to Manetho, the sixth and eight kings were Bikheres,2 and Thamphthis, both otherwise completely unknown and unattested.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Africanus: IV (6)BιχερηςBikherēs (22 years)
Eratosthenes: 14ΒιυρηςBiurēs (10 years)
1.   For example, the removal of Hatshepsut from all inscribed New Kingdom cultic king lists.
2.   Possibly the Hellenised rendering of ba-ka-ra. See Ryholt 1997: , 18.
Column 4.14
the Turin king list 4.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 28 years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 28

KingMenkaura (28th king)DynastyIV (6)
GardinerIII 14Fragment33 + 32 + 34 + 38
Only the bottom part of the ten-sign is visible, meaning the number of years could be 18, 28, or even 38.1 With a minimum reign of 18 years, the lost name would most likely have belonged to Menkaura, who had his pyramid built at Giza. Fragment 34 holds the first row of Champollion's fragment Qq.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 24mn-kꜢw-rꜤMenkaura
Africanus: IV (4)MενχερηςMenkherēs (63 years)
Eratosthenes: 17ΜοσχερωςMoskherēs (31 years)
Herodotus: 129.1ΜυκερινονMykerinon
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 623-25; Gardiner 1959: 16 (III 14 b)
Column 4.15
the Turin king list 4.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 4 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 4 ...

KingShepseskaf (29th king)DynastyIV (7)
GardinerIII 15Fragment34 + 38
The name is lost, only traces of the closing cartouche remains. Shepseskaf succeeded Menkaura, and is known to only have ruled for a few years, which would seem to fit well with the 4 years recorded here. The traces on fr. 38 were omitted by Gardiner and only commented as being blank. Fragment 34 holds the second row of Champollion's fragment Qq.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 25šps-kꜢ.fShepseskaf
Africanus: IV (7)ΣεβερχερηςSeberkherēs (7 years)
Column 4.16
the Turin king list 4.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 2 years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 2

KingThamphthis (30th king)DynastyIV (8)
GardinerIII 16Fragment34 + 38
The name is lost, only the record of a two-year reign remain. The tradition of the pyramid builders overshadowed the "lesser" kings of the dynasty, which over time, were simply lumped together at the end of the dynasty. In this position, Manetho record Thamphthis,1 a king that is otherwise completely unattested. The Abydos Canon does not record a king between Shepseskaf (25) and Userkaf (26.) Fragment 34 holds the third row of Champollion's fragment Qq.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Africanus: IV (8)ΘαμφθιςThamphthis (9 years)
1.   Possibly the Hellenised rendering of Djedefptah (ḏd.f-ptḥ). See Ryholt 1997: , 17f.
Column 4.17
the Turin king list 4.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ka..., 7 years ...
nsw-bit ...-kꜢ-... rnpt 7 ...

KingUserkaf (31st king)DynastyV (1)
GardinerIII 17Fragment34
At the end of the cartouche, there are traces a D28-sign (kꜢ), and below that possibly a minute part of an I9-sign (f). This is the first row of Champollion's fragment Ll.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 26wsr-kꜢ.fUserkaf
Saqqara Canon 34wsr-kꜢ.fUserkaf
Africanus: V (1)ΟυσερχερηςOuserkherēs (28 years)
Column 4.18
the Turin king list 4.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 12 years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 12

KingSahura (32nd king)DynastyV (2)
GardinerIII 18Fragment34
The name is lost, and only the record of 12 years remains. Sahura was the son of Userkaf, and is attested on the Abydos and Saqqara Canons as his successor. This is the second row of Champollion's fragment Ll.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 27sꜢḥw-rꜤSahura
Karnak Canon 3sꜢḥw-rꜤSahura
Saqqara Canon 33sꜢḥw-rꜤSahura
Africanus: V (2)ΣεφρηςSephrēs (13 years)
Column 4.19
the Turin king list 4.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... he acted as king for ...
nsw-bit ... ir.n f m nswyt ...

KingNeferirkara I Kakai (33rd king)DynastyV (3)
GardinerIII 19Fragment34
The name is missing, only the cartouche end remain. Neferirkara was the first king to use a prenomen and nomen as independent names. Attested on the Abydos and Saqqara Canons as the successor to his father Sahura. This is the third row of Champollion's fragment Ll.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 28kꜢ-KꜤ-iKakai
Saqqara Canon 32nfr-ir-kꜢ-rꜤNeferirkara
Africanus: V (3)ΝεφερχερηςNepherkherēs (20 years)
Column 4.20
the Turin king list 4.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 7 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 7 ...

KingShepseskara Netjeruser (34th king)DynastyV (4)
GardinerIII 20Fragment34
Shepseskara probably usurped the throne and only ruled a few months, but is present on the Saqqara Canon between Neferirkara and Neferefra. As the fourth king of the dynasty, he is identified with Manetho's Sisires who is attributed a 7 year reign.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Saqqara Canon 31šps-kꜢ-rꜤShepseskara
Africanus: V (4)ΣισιρηςSisirēs (7 years)
Column 4.21
the Turin king list 4.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... x years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt x ...

KingNeferefra Isi (35th king)DynastyV (5)
GardinerIII 21Fragment34
The entire name is lost, and the singular year stroke is in accord with the contemporary evidence that his reign lasted only a year or two. Neferefra was the eldest son of Neferirkara and is present in the Abydos Canon. Also present in the Saqqara Canon, but there as Kha-nefer-ra, which is puzzling. Perhaps it was confused with his Horus name, Nefer-khau with similar signs. Unreadable(?) trace of red ink on fr. 45.1
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 29nfr.f-rꜤNeferefra
Saqqara Canon 30ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤKhaneferra
Africanus: V (5)ΧερηςKherēs (20 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 19
Column 4.22
the Turin king list 4.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 10 + x years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 10 + x ...

KingNiuserra Ini (36th king)DynastyV (6)
GardinerIII 22Fragment34
Only the bottom part of the ten-sign is visible, followed by a stroke after which the papyrus breaks off. Accordingly, the number could be 11-14, 21-24, or 31-34.1 The two names of Niuserra are found on the Abydos and Karnak Canons respectively.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 30ni-wsr-rꜤNiuserra
Karnak Canon 4iniIni
Africanus: V (6)ΡαθουρηςRhathourēs (44 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (III 22 a)
Column 4.23
the Turin king list 4.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Menkauhor, 8 years
nsw-bit mn-kꜢ-ḥr rnpt 8

KingMenkauhor Kaiu (37th king)DynastyV (7)
GardinerIII 23Fragment34
Attested on the Abydos and Saqqara Canons with variants of the same name. Manetho name him Menkheres , the hellenized form of Menkahor, and also indicate a reign of 9 years. The rightmost part is the first row of Champollion's fragments Aa and Hh.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 31mn-kꜢ.w-ḥrMenkauhor
Saqqara Canon 29mn-kꜢ-ḥrMenkahor
Africanus: V (7)ΜενχερηςMenkherēs (9 years)
Column 4.24
the Turin king list 4.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djedu, 28 years
nsw-bit ḏd.w rnpt 28

KingDjedkara Isesi (38th king)DynastyV (8)
GardinerIII 24Fragment34
Attested on the inscribed New Kingdom Canons under three slightly different names, with a fourth variant recorded here. The variations are likely due to lacunae in the original records. The rightmost part (i.e. the name) is the second row of Champollion's fragments Aa and Hh.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 32ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤDjedkara
Karnak Canon 5issiIsesi
Saqqara Canon 28mꜢꜤ.t-kꜢ-rꜤMaatkara
Africanus: V (8)ΤανχερηςTankherēs (44 years)
Column 4.25
the Turin king list 4.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Unas, 30 years
nsw-bit wnis rnpt 30

KingUnas (39th king)DynastyV (9)
GardinerIII 25Fragment34
Any additional numbers are lost as the papyrus break off. Unas, the last king of the fifth dynasty, is also present on the Abydos and Saqqara Canons. Manetho hellenized his name as Onnos, and recorded his reign to be 33 years. The end of the name is the third row of Champollion's fragment Hh.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 33wnisUnis
Saqqara Canon 27wnisUnis
Africanus: V (9)ΟννοςOnnos (33 years)
Column 4.26
the Turin king list 4.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 4.26 (hieroglyphics)

Total of the kings beginning with Meni down to Unas, their years: 768 ...
dmḏ nswyw šꜢ mni r-mn wnis ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 768 ...

 Summation 
GardinerIII 26Fragment34
Summation of the First through Fifth Dynasties. The number of years lost in the lacuna can be calculated by taking Summation 3 (5.16–17) and subtracting Summation 2 (5.14–15), which result in 768 years. Perhaps only the full years were recorded, or omitted altogether, as there is not enough space for the years, months, and days.1 The end of the name is the fourth row of Champollion's fragment Hh.
1.   Ryholt 2004: 141, n. 36

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

Kinglists

CC BY   Creative Commons
license


All content on this website is free to copy, redistribute and adapt in any medium or format, provided you give the appropriate credit. Yes, this includes images and texts. Keep information free!

This page was retrieved from PHARAOH.SE
PHARAOH.SE
© 2011–2021 by Peter Lundström — Some Rights Reserved — V. 4.0
Disclaimer: Content should be accurate, but errors and/or omissions are possible.
All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources! Best on a large screen.