Turin king list: Column 6

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Column
25 rows — 21 kings.

From the poorly attested Herakleopolitian kings, leading up to the last kings of the Twelfth Dynasty. Only remnants of a few royal names are recorded on the few remaining fragments in this column.

Table 1: Overview of column 6
RowsRemarksKings
1–9Ninth/Tenth dynasties (continued)9
10Summation for Dynasty Ninth/Tenth
11Heading for the Eleventh Dynasty
12–17Eleventh Dynasty6
18Summation for the Eleventh Dynasty
19Heading for Twelfth Dynasty
20–25Twelfth Dynasty6
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 6.1
the Turin king list 6.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (62nd king)DynastyIX/X (10)
GardinerV 1Fragment59 + 59a
Only the title is left, the rest is lost. Farina placed an unnumbered fragment at the end of th column, but its position is probably incorrect,1 and has been moved to the Unplaced Fragments section.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 1 a)
Column 6.2
the Turin king list 6.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (63rd king)DynastyIX/X (11)
GardinerV 2Fragment59
The name is lost, only an unreadable trace of the first sign remain.
Column 6.3
the Turin king list 6.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (64th king)DynastyIX/X (12)
GardinerV 3Fragment59
The name is lost, only the opening cartouche remains. Written on a patch.
Column 6.4
the Turin king list 6.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (65th king)DynastyIX/X (13)
GardinerV 4Fragment59
A trace of the tip of what could be a mr or wsr sign is visible above the opening cartouche, but it is only guesswork. Written on a patch.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (V 4 a)
Column 6.5
the Turin king list 6.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (66th king)DynastyIX/X (14)
GardinerV 5Fragment59
The name is lost, only a partial title remain. Written on a patch.
Column 6.6
the Turin king list 6.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (67th king)DynastyIX/X (15)
GardinerV 6Fragment59
The name is lost, only the partial title remain, but with a curious stroke above the "head" of the bee-sign. Written on a patch.
Column 6.7
the Turin king list 6.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (68th king)DynastyIX/X (16)
GardinerV 7Fragment59
The name is lost, only a tiny stroke of the title remain.
Column 6.8
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 6.8 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (69th king)DynastyIX/X (17)
GardinerV 8Fragment
Column 6.9
the Turin king list 6.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (70th king)DynastyIX/X (18)
GardinerV 9Fragment61
The name is lost; there are no traces of any writing.
Column 6.10
the Turin king list 6.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.10 (hieroglyphics)

Total of 18 kings ...
dmḏ nsw 18 ...

 Summation 
GardinerV 10Fragment61
Summation of the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Most of the line is lost, only the initial signs remain. The number of kings is verified by the 18 kings recorded from 5.18 to 6.9. According to Manetho, during this period either 38 kings ruled for 594 years1, or 23 kings ruled for 285 years.2 The First Intermediate period as a whole lasted only for about 125 years, so it is clear that the numbers of Manetho are unreliable, probably due to misinterpretation or corruption by the redactors of the epitomes.
1.   According to Africanus: 19 kings of the Ninth Dynasty reigned for 409 years, and 19 kings of the Tenth Dynasty reigned for 185 years.
2.   According to Eusebius: 4 kings of the Ninth Dynasty reigned for 100, and 19 kings of the Tenth Dynasty reigned for 185 years.
Column 6.11
the Turin king list 6.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.11 (hieroglyphics)

The kings ...
nsywt ...

 Heading 
GardinerV 11Fragment61
Heading of the Eleventh Dynasty. The scribe has actually written kingship (pl.), which is a mistake.1 Only the initial signs remain, the rest is lost.
1.   Ryholt 2000: 95 n. 40
Column 6.12
the Turin king list 6.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingMentuhotep I (71st king)DynastyXI (1)
GardinerV 12Fragment61
The name is lost. Gardiner tentatively restored the first sign as V29 (wꜢḥ), noting that it could also be N28 (ḫꜤ),1 but neither restoration fits an Eleventh Dynasty king. Beckerath proposed sꜤ as a possible reading,2 but ultimately, the tiny trace makes a proper identification impossible. Counting back from Mentuhotep II (6.16), this line would have contained the name of Mentuhotep I, who only gained royal titles posthumously. He was the father of Intef I, the founder of the Eleventh Dynasty at Thebes. Only the first two signs of the name in the Karnak Canon are readable, but as the Horus name tpy-Ꜥ (“the forefather”) is also readable, it undoubtedly belong to Mentuhotep I.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 12mn-[tw-ḥtp]Men(tuhotep)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 12)
2.   Beckerath 1995: 226.
Column 6.13
the Turin king list 6.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingIntef I (72nd king)DynastyXI (2)
GardinerV 13Fragment61
The name is lost, only the title remain. Counting back from Mentuhotep II (6.16), this line would have contained the name of Intef I. The bee is part of Champollion's fragment Kk.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 11ini-[t-f]In(tef)
Column 6.14
the Turin king list 6.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 49 years ...
nsw-bit ... 49 ...

KingIntef II (73rd king)DynastyXI (3)
GardinerV 14Fragment61 + 62 + 85
The name is lost. The partial sign before the nine is most likely the back end of 40. Counting back from Mentuhotep II (6.16), this line would have contained the name of Intef II. Note: in the museum photo of the papyrus, fr. 85 is incorrectly rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise and is partially obscured by a transparent tape running vertically at the left edge, which is corrected here. The bee and the top of the fragment is part of Champollion's fragment Kk.
Column 6.15
the Turin king list 6.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 8 ...
nsw-bit ... 8 ...

KingIntef III (74th king)DynastyXI (4)
GardinerV 15Fragment62 + 85
The name is lost. Counting back from Mentuhotep II (6.16), this line would have contained the name of Intef III. The writing on this line starts farther left than the rest of this column, due to (5.16) encroaching this column.
Column 6.16
the Turin king list 6.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebhapetra ... 51 years ...
nsw-bit nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ ... rnpt 51 ...

KingMentuhotep II (75th king)DynastyXI (5)
GardinerV 16Fragment63 + 84 + 85
The first king of the Eleventh Dynasty whose name is intact.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 57nb-hꜢpt-rꜤNebhapetra
Karnak Canon 29nb-hꜢpt-rꜤNebhapetra
Saqqara Canon 13nb-hꜢpt-rꜤNebhapetra
Column 6.17
the Turin king list 6.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Sankhka(ra) ... 12 years ...
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-kꜢ ... 12 ...

KingMentuhotep III (76th king)DynastyXI (6)
GardinerV 17Fragment63 + ? + 84 + 85
Farina added the unnumbered fragment1 which clarifies the ankh part of the name. A mistake was made in the Karnak Canon, where the Ꜥnḫ-sign was misinterpreted from the source used, as the similar-looking nfr-sign.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 58sꜤnḫ-kꜢ-rꜤSankhkara
Karnak Canon 30snfr-kꜢ-rꜤSneferkara
Saqqara Canon 14sꜤnḫ-kꜢ-rꜤSankhkara
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 17 a)
Column 6.18
the Turin king list 6.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.18 (hieroglyphics)

Total: 6 kings amounting to 136 years and a lacuna of 7 years, Total: 143 years ...
dmḏ nsw 6 ir n rnpt 136 wsf 7 dmḏ 143 ...

 Summation 
GardinerV 18Fragment63 + ? + 64
Summation of the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Farina added the unnumbered fragment.1 The traces of a six at the edge of fr. 63 is certain.2 Only a horizontal stroke of the lacuna notation remain in fr. 64, above the sublinear 100-sign that extend to the left. This seven-year lacuna notation account for the last king of the dynasty, the missing Mentuhotep IV, and indicate another lacuna notation, most likely in (6.17). The number written above the sublinear hundred-sign must be 136 as we know the total (143), and the lacuna (7).
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 17 a)
2.   id. 16 (V 18 a)
Column 6.19
the Turin king list 6.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.19 (hieroglyphics)

Kings of the Residence Itj-tawy ...
... ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwy

 Heading 
GardinerV 19Fragment64
Only part of the heading for the Twelfth Dynasty remain, however, it does mention the capital Itj-tawy.
Column 6.20
the Turin king list 6.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sehotepibra he acted as king for ...
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ ir.n f m nswyt ...

KingAmenemhat I (77th king)DynastyXII (1)
GardinerV 20Fragment64
All but ending of the name is lost, but Amenemhat I's prenomen Sehotepibra is the only possibility. As for the number of years, the sublinear tail of a nine is recorded, but a preceding ten-sign is lost where the papyrus breaks off. However, the number 29 is most likely correct, if not certain.1 Curiosly, the redactors of the Epitome failed to understand that Manetho's narrative contained not only four kings named Amenemhat, but also three kings named Senusret, resulting in a badly garbled dynasty which placed Ammenemes between the dynasties.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 59s.ḥtp-ib-rꜤSehotepibra
Karnak Canon 17s.ḥtp-ib-rꜤSehotepibra
Saqqara Canon 15s.ḥtp-ib-rꜤSehotepibra
Africanus: XI (1)AμμενεμηςAmmenemēs
Eusebius: XIAμμενεμηςAmmenemēs (16 years)
Eratosthenes: 32Σταμμενεμης αStammenemēs I (26 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 20 a)
Column 6.21
the Turin king list 6.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Kheperkara ... 45 years
nsw-bit ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 45 ...

KingSenusret I (78th king)DynastyXII (2)
GardinerV 21Fragment64
All but the ending of the name is lost, but the signs for 40+5 years are certain,1 although the vertical stroke of the five is weak.2 Herodotus failed to understand that the Twelfth Dynasty contained three kings named Senusret, and this Sesostris was in all likelyhood a combination of Senusret I and III.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 60ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤKheperkara
Karnak Canon 24ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤKheperkara
Saqqara Canon 16ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤKheperkara
Africanus: XII (1)ΣεσονχοσιςSesonkhosis (46 years)
Eusebius: XII (1)ΣεσονχοσιςSesonkhosis (46 years)
Herodotus: 102.1ΣεσωστριςSesōstris
1.   Murnane, "Ancient Egyptian Coregencies", 5 note 20
2.   cf. Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 618
Column 6.22
the Turin king list 6.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nubkara ... 30+ x years
nsw-bit nbw-kꜢ-rꜤ ... rnpt 30 ...

KingAmenemhat II (79th king)DynastyXII (3)
GardinerV 22Fragment67 + 64
The name is lost, but can only have held that of Amenemhat II, the predecessor of Senusret II (6.23). The ten-sign could be a 10, 20, or 30, but most likely 30, as Amenemhat II reigned for at least 35 years, for a likely total of 35–39 years.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 61nbw-kꜢ.w-rꜤNubkaura
Karnak Canon 18nbw-kꜢ.w-rꜤNubkaura
Saqqara Canon 17nwb-kꜢ-rꜤNubkara
Africanus: XII (2)AμμανεμηςAmmanemēs (38 years)
Eusebius: XII (2)AμμανεμηςAmmanemēs (38 years)
Eratosthenes: 33Σταμμενεμης βStammenemēs II
Column 6.23
the Turin king list 6.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khapheperra ... 19 years ...
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ ... rnpt 19 ...

KingSenusret II (80th king)DynastyXII (4)
GardinerV 23Fragment67
The name is lost, but was likely that of Senusret II. The partial ten-sign could be a 10/20/30, but most likely a 10. Below that is the sublinear tail of a nine, yielding a very probable 19-year reign. Manetho's Sesostris was probably a conflation of the two kings with the same name, or misunderstood by the redactor of the Epitome.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 62ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤKhakheperra
Saqqara Canon 18ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤKhakheperra
Africanus: XII (3)ΣεσωστριςSesōstris (48 years)
Eusebius: XII (3)ΣεσωστριςSesōstris (48 years)
Column 6.24
the Turin king list 6.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebkaura ... 30+ x years
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ ... rnpt 30 ...

KingSenusret III (81st king)DynastyXII (5)
GardinerV 24Fragment67
The name is lost, but most likely that of Senusret III. The 30-sign is certain; the subsequent number could be in the range of 1–8,1 for a total of 31-38 years. A nine is impossible, as the tail of a nine would have extended below the ten-sign.2 Manetho's Sesostris was probably a conflation of the two kings with the same name, or misunderstood by the redactor of the Epitome.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 63ḫꜤ-kꜢ.w-rꜤKhakaura
Karnak Canon 32ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤKhakara
Saqqara Canon 19ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤKhakara
Africanus: XII (3)ΣεσωστριςSesōstris (48 years)
Eusebius: XII (3)ΣεσωστριςSesōstris (48 years)
Eratosthenes: 34ΣιστοσιχερμηςSistosikhermēs (55 years)
Herodotus: 102.1ΣεσωστριςSesōstris
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (V 24 a)
2.   Sethe 1904: 39
Column 6.25
the Turin king list 6.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 6.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nimaatra ... 40 + x years
nsw-bit ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ... rnpt 40 ...

KingAmenemhat III (82nd king)DynastyXII (6)
GardinerV 25Fragment67
The name is lost, but most likely that of Amenemhat III. The 40-sign is certain, but any extra years are lost. His highest attested date is year 46,1 and probably had a long coregency (c. 20 years) with his father Senusret II,2 and shorter coregency with his son, Amenemhat IV.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 64ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤNimaatra
Saqqara Canon 20ni-[mꜢꜤt]-rꜤNimaatra
Africanus: XXI (4)ΛαχαρηςLakharēs (8 years)
Eusebius: XII (4)ΛαμαριςLamaris (8 years)
Eratosthenes: 35ΜαρηςMarēs (43 years)
Herodotus: 101.1ΜοιριοςMoirios
1.   Griffith 1897: 40, pls. 14-15. (Papyrus Kahun VI 19 recto)
2.   Thomas Schneider, "The Relative Chronology", 172f.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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