Turin king list: Column 7

Quick navigation
Column
28 rows — 26 kings.

Twenty-eight rows with the names of twenty-six kings, covering the last kings of the Twelfth Dynasty leading into the Second Intermediate Period, and an abundance of kings.

Table 1: Overview of column 7
RowsRemarksKings
1–2Twelfth Dynasty (continued)2
3Summation for the Twelfth Dynasty
4Heading for Thirteenth Dynasty
5–28Thirteenth Dynasty24
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 7.1
the Turin king list 7.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Maakherura he acted as king for 9 years, 3 months and 27 days
nsw-bit mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤ ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 9 Ꜣbd.w 3 hrw 27

KingAmenemhat IV (83rd king)DynastyXII (7)
GardinerVI 1Fragment72 + 81
The name of the king is written on the patch. The rightmost part is Champollion's fr. D, and the end of the row is fr. Vv.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 65mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤMaakherura
Karnak Canon 21mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤMaakherura
Saqqara Canon 21mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤMaakherura
Africanus: XII (5)AμμερηςAmmerēs (8 years)
Column 7.2
the Turin king list 7.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Neferusobek(ra), 3 years, 10 months, 24 days
nsw-bit nfr.w-sbk-rꜤ rnpt 3 Ꜣbdw 10 hrw 24

KingNeferusobek (84th king)DynastyXII (8)
GardinerVI 2Fragment72 + 81
The scribe erroneously added the ubiquitous "Ra" to the name, where it clearly does not belong.1 The correct name was always written as Neferusobek. The rightmost part is Champollion's fr. D, and the end of the row is fr. Vv.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 22sbk-nfr.w-rꜤSobekneferura
Saqqara Canon 22sbk-kꜢ-rꜤSobekkara
Africanus: XII (6)ΣκεμιoφριςSkemiophris (4 years)
1.   The sign was almost certainly written out without thinking, see Ryholt 1997: , 27 (§1.1.4); Ryholt 2004: 149
Column 7.3
the Turin king list 7.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.3 (hieroglyphics)

Total kings of the Residence Itj-tawy, 8 kings who ruled 213 years, 1 month and 17 days
dmḏ nswyw nt ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwy nsw 8 ir.n rnpt 213 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 17

 Summation 
GardinerVI 3Fragment72 + 81
Summation of the Twelfth Dynasty. The diagonal trace above the last numbers is likely the start of a bracket around the end of the line that encroach column 8, as can also be seen in (3.14), (5.16) and (8.3). The trace of the last number can only be a 7. Manetho recorded a total of 160/182 years of reign for this dynasty.1
1.   Africanus: 7 kings of Diospolis, 160 years; Eusebius: 7 kings of Diospolis, 182 years.
Column 7.4
the Turin king list 7.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.4 (hieroglyphics)

Kings who came after the children (?) of The Dual King, Sehotepibra, may he live, prosper and be healthy
nswyt ... sꜢ ... nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb

 Heading 
GardinerVI 4Fragment72 + 73 + 81
Heading of the Thirteenth Dynasty, or possibly for the entire Second Intermediate Period.1
Restoration
Allen 2010: 1

Hieroglyphic restoration of 7.4 the Turin king list by Allen 2010: 1

nyswt ntjw ḥr sꜢ msw nswt-bjt sḥtp-jb-rꜤ Ꜥnx (w)ḏꜢ s(nb)
Kings who are after the children of Dual King Sehotepibra, alive, sound, and healthy.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 33, note 83.
Column 7.5
the Turin king list 7.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khutawyra he acted as king for 2 years, 3 months and 24 days
nsw-bit ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 2 Ꜣbdw 3 hrw 24

KingSobekhotep I (85th king)DynastyXIII (1)
GardinerVI 5Fragment72 + 73 + 74 + 81
Egyptologists have established that Wegaf could not have been the first king of the Thirteenth Dynasty,1 and his prenomen (ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ) written here indicate an unintended swap of the similar prenomen of Sobekhotep I (sḫm-rꜤ-ḫw-tꜢwy) recorded further down in the list (7.19).2 The trace after Ꜣbd can only be the plural .w sign.
1.   Kitchen 1967: 45 n. 2
2.   Ryholt 1997: 316ff.
Column 7.6
the Turin king list 7.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemkara ... years ... lacuna years, 6 years
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ ... rnpt ... wsf rnp.t 6

KingSonbef (86th king)DynastyXIII (2)
GardinerVI 6Fragment72 + 74 + 81
There is a trace of what could be imn on fr. 72, which might be the beginning of the name Amenemhat. The length of reign is lost, and the six-year lacuna notation likely for Nerikara, whose record is missing.
Column 7.7
the Turin king list 7.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Amenemhat(ra) ... 3 years
nsw-bit i-mn-m-ḥꜢ.t (rꜤ) ... rnpt 3

KingSekhemkara Amenemhat (87th king)DynastyXIII (3)
GardinerVI 7Fragment72 + 74
There are worn traces of the start of the cartouche, and a rꜤ-sign added erroneously by the scribe.1 The traces of imn are very probable, while m-ḥꜢt is certain. The final number could be in the 3-4 range.2 There might also have been lacuna notation on this line for king Ameny Qemau, which is itself lost in lacuna.3 The rightmost part is the first row of Champollion's fragment C.
1.   The sign was almost certainly written out without thinking, see Ryholt 1997: , 27 (§1.1.4); Ryholt, "Turin King-List", 149
2.   Ryholt 1997: 74
3.   Ryholt 1997: 73, 214
Column 7.8
the Turin king list 7.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sehotepibra ... 1 ...
nsw-bit {s}ḥtp-ib-rꜤ ... 1

KingQemau Siharnedjheritef (88th king)DynastyXIII (4)
GardinerVI 8Fragment72 + 74
The scribe incorrectly added an initial s to the correct name Hotepibra,1 as attested by all other finds of this king. The second row of Champollion's fragment C.
1.   Ryholt 1998: 3; Ryholt 1997: 338-339 (File 13/10)
Column 7.9
the Turin king list 7.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Iufni ...
nsw-bit iwf-ni ...

KingIufni (89th king)DynastyXIII (5)
GardinerVI 9Fragment72
This is the only attestation of a king with this name.1 The third row of Champollion's fragment C.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 73, 214
Column 7.10
the Turin king list 7.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sankhibra ... 23 days ...
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-ib-rꜤ ... hrw 23 ...

KingSankhibra Amenemhat (90th king)DynastyXIII (6)
GardinerVI 10 + unpl.Fragment72 + 75
Horizontal and vertical fibre correspondence between fr. 72 and 75 make the position of fr. 75 certain.1 The photos do not include fr. 75, which use the old placement of Farina. The fourth row of Champollion's fragment C.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 21
Column 7.11
the Turin king list 7.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Semenkara ... 22 days ...
nsw-bit smn-kꜢ-rꜤ ... 22 ...

KingNebnun (91st king)DynastyXIII (7)
GardinerVI 11 + unpl.Fragment72 + 75
Horizontal and vertical fibre correspondence between fr. 72 and 75 make the position of fr. 75 certain.1 The photos of the papyrus does not include fr. 75, as it is still arranged as per Farina. The fifth row of Champollion's fragment C.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 21
Column 7.12
the Turin king list 7.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sehotepibra ... 1 (+ x months,) 27 days ...
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ ... 1 ... 27 ...

KingSewesekhtawy Sehotepibra (92nd king)DynastyXIII (8)
GardinerVI 12 + unpl.Fragment72 + 75
Horizontal and vertical fibre correspondence between fr. 72 and 75 make the position of fr. 75 certain.1 The photos of the papyrus does not include fr. 75, as it is still arranged as per Farina. The first row of Champollion's fragment M.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 21
Column 7.13
the Turin king list 7.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sewadjkara ... 21 + x days
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ ... hrw 21 + x ...

KingSewadjkara (93rd king)DynastyXIII (9)
GardinerVI 13 + unpl.Fragment72 + 75
The unnumbered fragment1 with rꜤ-s-wꜢḏ was added by Farina.2 The top part of a partial 20-sign is visible on fr. 75, which Gardiner transliterated as a ten, but a ten does not have a horizontal stroke. Horizontal and vertical fibre correspondence between fr. 72 and 75 make the position of fr. 75 certain.3 The photos of the papyrus does not include fr. 75, as it is still arranged as per Farina. The second row of Champollion's fragment M.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VI 13 a-b)
2.   Farina 1938: pl. 6
3.   Ryholt 1997: 21
Column 7.14
the Turin king list 7.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Nedjemibra ... 0 years 7 months ...
nsw-bit nḏm-ib-rꜤ ... rnpt 0 Ꜣbd.w 7 ...

KingNedjemibra (94th king)DynastyXIII (10)
GardinerVI 14Fragment76 + 77
Gardiner read the trace of the last sign as a probable nine,1 but since the sign does not end well below the line, it is likely a seven.2
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VI 14 b)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 74, 192
Column 7.15
the Turin king list 7.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Sobekhotep son of Ra ... 2 ...
nsw-bit sbk-ḥtp-rꜤ zꜢ ... 2 ...

KingSobekhotep II (95th king)DynastyXIII (11)
GardinerVI 15Fragment76 + 77 + 70
The traces of Son of... follows the cartouche,1 but name is lost in lacuna.2 The minor traces on Fr. 70, were read that Gardiner read as a two. The scribe erroneously added the ubiquitous "Ra" to the name, where it clearly does not belong.3
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VI 15 a)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 215
3.   The sign was almost certainly written out without thinking, see Ryholt 1997: 27 (§1.1.4); Ryholt 2004: 149
Column 7.16
the Turin king list 7.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Renseneb he acted as king for ... 4 months ...
nsw-bit rn-snb ir.n ... Ꜣbd 4 ...

KingRanisonb (96th king)DynastyXIII (12)
GardinerVI 16Fragment76 + 77 + 70
Gardiner incorrectly read a f below the numbers,1 but there is no trace of that on fr. 70. Furthermore, the fragment has moved slightly to the left compared to Gardiner, because there is no vertical fibre correspondence between fr. 70 and 78,2 and also leave room for a longer text. Fragment 76 is the first row of Champollion's fragment G. As can be seen in the photo, Farina joined a tiny fragment to the left side of fr. 77,3 which is not present in Lepsius, Gardiner, or Ryholt, as the fibres do not match,4 or at least, is questionable.
Restoration
Ryholt 1997: 71

Hieroglyphic restoration of 7.16 the Turin king list by Ryholt 1997: 71

The Dual King Ranisonb has functioned in kingship for 4 months
nsw-bit rni-snb ir n f m nswyt rnpt 0 Ꜣbdw 4
1.   Gardiner 1959: pl. III
2.   Ryholt 1997: 22
3.   Farina 1938: pl. VI.
4.   Ryholt 1997: 22 n. 56
Column 7.17
the Turin king list 7.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Awtibra ... 7 days
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ ... hrw 7

KingHor I (97th king)DynastyXIII (13)
GardinerVI 17Fragment76 + 77 + 70
A possible lacuna notation might have been found on this line, but if so, is itself lost in the lacuna. This is almost certain because at least four known successors of Awtibra are absent from the papyrus.1 Fragment 76 is the second row of Champollion's fragment G.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 12, 218f.
Column 7.18
the Turin king list 7.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sedjefa..kara, x years ...
nsw-bit s-ḏfꜢ ... kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt ...

KingSedjefakara Kay-Amenemhat (98th king)DynastyXIII (14)
GardinerVI 18Fragment76 + 78 + 70
The third row of fr. 76 is Champollion's fragment G, and fragment 78 is the first row of fr. V.
Column 7.19
the Turin king list 7.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemra Khutawy Sobekhotep reigned x years ...
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢwy sbk-ḥtp rnpt ...

KingWegaf (99th king)DynastyXIII (15)
GardinerVI 19Fragment76 + 78
The prenomen of of Sobekhotep I (sḫm-rꜤ-ḫw-tꜢwy) written here were interchanged with the similar prenomen of Wegaf (ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ) recorded further up in the list (7.5).1 The fourth row of fr. 76 is Champollion's fragment G, and fragment 78 is the second row of fr. V.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 316ff.
Column 7.20
the Turin king list 7.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Userkara Khendjer, x years ...
nsw-bit wsr ... rꜤ ḫnḏr rꜤ rnpt ...

KingKhendjer (100th king)DynastyXIII (16)
GardinerVI 20 + VI 11Fragment76 + 78
The second rꜤ was a misinterpretation by the scribe of the similar-looking Aa1-sign ().1 The fourth row of fr. 76 is Champollion's fragment J, and fragment 78 is the third row of fr. V.
1.   Compare Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 574 and 303.
Column 7.21
the Turin king list 7.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...kara Imyremeshaw, 4 days
nsw-bit ... kꜢ-rꜤ imy-r-mšꜤw ... hrw 4

KingImyremeshaw (101st king)DynastyXIII (17)
GardinerVI 21Fragment76 + 78 + 71
The nomen Imyremeshaw1 was a military title, but was on occasion also a personal name for families with a military tradition.2 The position of fr. 71 is tenative.3 The sixth row of fr. 76 is Champollion's fragment J, and fragment 78 is the fourth row of fr. V.
1.   With prenomen on colossal statue Cairo JE 37466 (statue). See Flinders Petrie, Tanis I, (London: 1885), Plate III (17 B)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 221f.
3.   id. 22, 71. Ryholt posed that fr. 71 should be disregarded, yet it is present in his Fig. 10, ten rows down compared to Gardiner.
Column 7.22
the Turin king list 7.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sehotepkara Intef, ... 3 days
... s-ḥtp-kꜢ-rꜤ ... in.t=f ... 3

KingIntef IV (102nd king)DynastyXIII (18)
GardinerVI 22Fragment78 + 71
The position of fr. 71 is tenative.1 The fifth row of fr. 78 is Champollion's fragment V, and the top trace on fr. 79 = fr. Oo. Apparent from Lepsius' facsimile, fragment 78 was once continuous but has since been split in two right on the middle of this row.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 22, 71. Ryholt posed that fr. 71 should be disregarded, yet it is present in his Fig. 10, ten rows down compared to Gardiner.
Column 7.23
the Turin king list 7.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Meribra Seth ... 6 days
nsw-bit ... mr-ib-rꜤ ... stẖ ... 6

KingMeribra Seth (103rd king)DynastyXIII (19)
GardinerVI 23Fragment79 + 78 + 71
Gardiner removed part of Fr. 79.1 The position of fr. 71 is tenative2. The sixth row of fr. 76 is Champollion's fragment J, and fragment 78 is the fourth row of fr. V.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VI 23 a). See unplaced fragment 79a for a description of the removed fragment.
2.   Ryholt 1997: 22, 71. Ryholt posed that fr. 71 should be disregarded, yet it is present in his Fig. 10, ten rows down compared to Gardiner.
Column 7.24
the Turin king list 7.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemkara Wadjtawy Sobekhotep, 4 years, 2 months x days
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ wꜢḏ-tꜢ.wy sbk-ḥtp rnpt 4 Ꜣbd 2 hrw x

KingSobekhotep III (104th king)DynastyXIII (20)
GardinerVI 24Fragment79 + 78 + 80
The partial kꜢ-sign following sḫm is almost certain.1 Gardiner recorded only 2 strokes on either side of the small lacuna on fr. 80,2 but as can be seen on the photo and on Lepsius' facsimile, there are 4 strokes, or years.3 The bee and opening cartouche on fr. 79 is Champollion's fr. O, and fr. 78 is fr. Oo.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VI 24 a)
2.   id. plate III.
3.   Ryholt 1997: 74
Column 7.25
the Turin king list 7.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khasekhemra Neferhotep, son of Haankhef, 11 years, 1 month ...
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-sḫm-rꜤ nfr-ḥtp) sꜢ ḥꜢ-Ꜥnḫ=f rnpt 11 Ꜣbd 1 ...

KingNeferhotep I (105th king)DynastyXIII (21)
GardinerVI 25Fragment79 + 78 + 80
Only a vertical trace of the number of months remains as the papyrus breaks off, it could be 1-5, or 10-11.1 Fragment 79 is Champollion's fr. O, and fr. 78 is from fr. Pp and Oo.
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, Nos. 614-623. The vertical component would seem to rule out numbers 6-9.
Column 7.26
the Turin king list 7.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sihathor ... years ... 3 days ...
nsw-bit sꜢ-ḥw.t-ḥr rnpt ... hrw 3

KingSihathor (106th king)DynastyXIII (22)
GardinerVI 26Fragment79 + 78 + 80
Fragment 79 is Champollion's fr. O, and fr. 78 is from fr. Pp and Oo.
Column 7.27
the Turin king list 7.27 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.27 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.27 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khaneferra Sobekhotep ...
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp ...

KingSobekhotep IV (107th king)DynastyXIII (23)
GardinerVI 27Fragment79 + 78 + 80
Fragment 79 is Champollion's fr. O, and fr. 78 is from fr. Pp and Oo.
Column 7.28
the Turin king list 7.28 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.28 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 7.28 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingSobekhotep V (108th king)DynastyXIII (24)
The name is lost, but Sobekhotep V succeeded Sobekhotep IV (7.27) and was himself succeeded by Sobekhotep VI (8.1), which would place his name here.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 231-2

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

Kinglists

CC BY   Creative Commons
license


All content on this website is free to copy, redistribute and adapt in any medium or format, provided you give the appropriate credit. Yes, this includes images and texts. Keep information free!

This page was retrieved from PHARAOH.SE
PHARAOH.SE
© 2011–2021 by Peter Lundström — Some Rights Reserved — V. 4.0
Disclaimer: Content should be accurate, but errors and/or omissions are possible.
All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources! Best on a large screen.