Ramesseum Canon king list

The Ramesseum is the large memorial temple of Ramesses II at Thebes in Upper Egypt.

The ravages of time have not been kind to the Ramesseum, and only ruins of a small portion of the original structures survive today. Over the millennia its masonry was slowly being depleted and reused for other buildings, damaged by flooding, and finally neglected. Still surviving, the upper register of the second western pylon shows a processions where ancestors of Ramesses II are honored at ceremonies of the festival of Min. It contains two processions with ancestors being honored, containing 19 cartouches with the names of 14 pharaohs. Notably, Hatshepsut and the Amarna pharaohs are omitted.

When rediscovered, it was eventually confirmed to be the vast monument of Ozymandyas described in antiquity by Diodorus and Strabo, who called it Memnonium. The name Ramesseum was first coined by Champollion, who visited the ruins in 1829, but Memnonium continued to be used by travellers until the 1850’s. The scene was first published by Champollion, followed by Lepsius some years later.

Ramesseum king list detail
Cartouche
Aa kheper ka Ra

Ꜣ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ

Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 1
Cartouche
Djoser ka Ra

ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ

Holy is the soul of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 2
Cartouche
Neb pehty Ra

nb-pḥti-rꜤ

The Lord of the might is Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 3
Cartouche
Neb hapet Ra

nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ

The Lord of the rudder is Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 4
Cartouche
Meni

mni

The established one(?)

Ramesseum Canon No. 5
Cartouche
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra

wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ

The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 6
Cartouche
Men Maat Ra

mn-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ

Eternal is the Truth of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 7
Cartouche
Men pehty Ra

mn-pḥti-rꜤ

Eternal is the Strength of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 8
Cartouche
Djoser kheperu Ra, setep en Ra

ḏsr-ḫprw stp-n-rꜤ

Holy are of the manifestations of Ra, chosen of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 9
Cartouche
Neb Maat Ra

nb-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ

The possessor of the Maat of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 10
Cartouche
Men kheperu Ra

mn-ḫprw-rꜤ

Established manifestations of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 11
Cartouche
Aa kheperu Ra

ꜤꜢ-ḫprw-rꜤ

Great are the manifestations of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 12
Cartouche
Men kheper Ra

mn-ḫpr-rꜤ

Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 13
Cartouche
Aa kheper en Ra

ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-n-rꜤ

Great is the manifestation of Ra

Ramesseum Canon No. 14

Gallery

Bibliography

  • Diodorus Bibliotheca Historica, I, paragraphs 47-49 (c. 30 BC)
  • Strabo Geographica, Book XVII:43 (c. 23 CE)
  • Frederik Louis Norden Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie, (Copenhagen 1755)
  • David Roberts Egypt, and Nubia, 2 vol. (London 1849)
  • Ippolito Rosellini I monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia. vol 4.3 (culto), plates 75-77 (Pisa 1844)
  • Jean François Champollion Monuments de l’Égypte et de la Nubie. II, 149bis & 150 (Paris: 1845)
  • Karl Richard Lepsius Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien.... III, 162-164, (Berlin: 1849)
  • Bertha Porter, & Rosalind Moss Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. II2, 434 (10) (Oxford: 1927)
  • The Epigraphic Survey Medinet Habu—Volume IV Feast of Min ceremonies of Ramesses II (OIP 51), 213 (Chicago: 1940)
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen Ramesside Inscriptions. V, 205:9-11; 209:9-10 (Oxford: 1983)