Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt

After the conflict between the rulers of Thebes and Heracleopolis during the First Intermediate Period, the Two Lands were once again united after the king re-established his power by taking direct control of the military and by appointing important administrative positions to trusted and loyal members of the family. This limited the power of the nomarchs and priests that had grown ever more powerful since the collapse of the Old Kingdom, and brought wealth and power back to the king. The stability of the government allowed production to increase manifold. The improvements to infrastructure ushered in an era of flourishing trade, and the stability of the time allowed arts and literature to reach new heights. It was a prosperous era, where the pharaos tried to emulate those of the Old Kingdom.

Around 1780 BCE, the immigrant Hyksos had amassed wealth and power in Lower Egypt, ultimately resulting in the Second Intermediate Period.

Dynasty XI

#PharaohAlternate namesReign (BC)
1Mentuhotep IMentuhotep-aa
2Intef IAntef I, Anjotef I, Inyotef I
3Intef IIAntef II, Anjotef II, Inyotef II2066–2017
4Intef IIIAntef III, Anjotef III, Inyotef III2016–2009
5Mentuhotep IIMontuhotep II2009–1959
6Mentuhotep IIIMontuhotep III1958–1947
7Mentuhotep IVMontuhotep IV1947–1940

Dynasty XII

#PharaohAlternate namesReign (BC)
1Amenemhat IAmenemhet I1939–1910
2Senusret ISenusret I, Senwosret I1920–1875
3Amenemhat IIAmenemhet II1878–1843
4Senusret IISenusret II, Senwosret II1845–1837
5Senusret IIISenusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris1837–1819
6Amenemhat IIIAmenemhet III1818–1773
7Amenemhat IVAmenemhet IV1772–1764