After the conflict between the rulers of Thebes and Heracleopolis during the First Intermediate Period, the Two Lands were once again united after the king re-established his power by taking direct control of the military and by appointing important administrative positions to trusted and loyal members of the family. This limited the power of the nomarchs and priests that had grown ever more powerful since the collapse of the Old Kingdom, and brought wealth and power back to the king. The stability of the government allowed production to increase manifold. The improvements to infrastructure ushered in an era of flourishing trade, and the stability of the time allowed arts and literature to reach new heights. It was a prosperous era, where the pharaos tried to emulate those of the Old Kingdom.
Around 1780 BCE, the immigrant Hyksos had amassed wealth and power in Lower Egypt, ultimately resulting in the Second Intermediate Period.
|Antef I, Anjotef I, Inyotef I
|Antef II, Anjotef II, Inyotef II
|Antef III, Anjotef III, Inyotef III
|Senusret I, Senwosret I
|Senusret II, Senwosret II
|Senusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris