The Middle Kingdom

Early in the Middle Kingdom, the king re-established his power by taking direct control of the military and by appointing important administrative positions to trusted and loyal members of the family. This limited the power of the nomarchs and priests that had grown ever more powerful since the collapse of the Old Kingdom, and brought wealth and power back to the king. The stability of the government allowed production to increase manifold. The improvements to infrastructure ushered in an era of flourishing trade, and the stability of the time allowed arts and literature to reach new heights. Around 1780 BC, the immigrant Hyksos gained power in Lower Egypt, which led to the Second Intermediate Period.

Dynasty XI

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Mentuhotep I Mentuhotep-aa
2 Intef I Antef I, Anjotef I, Inyotef I
3 Intef II Antef II, Anjotef II, Inyotef II 2066–2017
4 Intef III Antef III, Anjotef III, Inyotef III 2016–2009
5 Mentuhotep II Montuhotep II 2009–1959
6 Mentuhotep III Montuhotep III 1958–1947
7 Mentuhotep IV Montuhotep IV 1947–1940

Dynasty XII

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Amenemhat I Amenemhet I 1939–1910
2 Senusret I Senusret I, Senwosret I 1920–1875
3 Amenemhat II Amenemhet II 1878–1843
4 Senusret II Senusret II, Senwosret II 1845–1837
5 Senusret III Senusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris 1837–1819
6 Amenemhat III Amenemhet III 1818–1773
7 Amenemhat IV Amenemhet IV 1772–1764
8 Neferusobek Sobekneferu 1763–1760

End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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