The Ramesseum is the memorial temple of Ramesses II at Thebes in Upper Egypt.
The upper register of the second western pylon, shows a processions where ancestors of Ramesses II are honored at ceremonies of the festival of Min.
It contains two processions with ancestors being honored, containing 19 cartouches with the names of 14 pharaohs. Notably, Hatshepsut and the Amarna pharaohs are omitted. When rediscovered, it was confirmed to be vast monument of "Ozymandyas" described in antiquity by Diodorus and Strabo, who called it Memnonium. The name Ramesseum was first used by Champollion, who visited the ruins in 1829, but Memnonium were used by travellers until the 1850's. The scene was first published by Champollion in 1845, and by Lepsius four years later.
|#||Hieroglyphs||Name in list||Pharaoh|
|1||Aa kheper ka Ra|
|2||Djoser ka Ra|
|3||Neb pehty Ra|
|4||Neb hapet Ra|
|6||User Maat Ra, setep en Ra|
|7||Men Maat Ra|
|8||Men pehty Ra|
|9, 15||Djoser kheperu Ra, setep en Ra|
|10, 16||Neb Maat Ra|
|11, 17||Men kheperu Ra|
|12, 18||Aa kheperu Ra|
|13, 19||Men kheper Ra|
|14||Aa kheper en Ra|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.