First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt

The Sixth Dynasty pharaoh Pepi II’s protracted rule and lack of a heir undermined the central government, and after his passing, the Old Kingdom collapsed and the nation descended into anarchy. Two opposing cities contended for control of a decentralised Egypt: northern Heracleopolis and southern Thebes. Although this period has long been considered to be a “dark age,” recent studies show that it was actually an era of change and transition when local nomarchs replaced the central monarchy at Memphis with local authority and customs.

The lack of reliable documents adds to the image as a “dark age,” as does the lack of art and architecture. The almost complete absence of historical records is perhaps the most significant barrier to understanding this period. The Old Kingdom had preserved Egypt’s past in stone by building pyramids and mortuary complexes that recounted their stories. With no central administration during this time, preserving history was not a top priority for the local rulers. Middle Kingdom.

Dynasty VII

There is no evidence of a seventh dynasty.
Africanus wrote that 70 kings ruled for 70 days,
while Eusebius wrote that 5 kings of ruled for 75 days.

Dynasty VIII

#PharaohAlternate namesReign (BC)
1NetjerikaraNetjerikare, Nitocris
3Neferkara IINeferkare II
4Neferkara NebyNeferkare Neby
5Djedkara ShemaiDjedkare Shemay
6Neferkara KhenduNeferkare Khendu
8Neferkamin ISeneferka
10Neferkara TereruNeferkare Tereru
12Neferkara PepisenebNeferkare Pepiseneb
13Neferkamin Anu
14Qakara Ibi
17Neferirkara IINeferirkare II

Dynasty IX

#PharaohAlternate namesReign (BC)
1Meribra Khety IMeribre Khety I
2Neferkara IIINeferkare III
3Wahkara Khety IIWahkare Khety II
5Neferkara Khety IIINeferkare Khety I

Dynasty X

#PharaohAlternate namesReign (BC)
1Nebkaura Khety IVNebkaure Khety IV, Khety Vbetween 2160 and 2130
2MerikaraMerykarec. 2075–2040
?Sekhemkara ISekhemkare I