Amenhotep IV in hieroglyphs

The tenth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Akhenaten, Akhenaton, Echnaton, Amenophis IV

Amenhotep IV reigned for five years before changing his name to Akhenaten, keeping only the throne name of his original titulary. He is especially famed for introducing the worship of Aten above all other gods, sometimes described as monotheism, which it was not. His name in the Amarna letters is Nibhururiya, which is the Akkadian renditon of his throne name Neferkheperura.

Precedessor
Amenhotep III

Successor
Neferneferuaten

Reign of Amenhotep IV
AE Chronology1353–1336
v. Beckerath1355–1337
Shaw1352–1336
Dodson1360–1343
Arnold1364–1348
Malek1353–1337
Grimal1352–1338
Redford1372–1355
Manetho (Josephus)12y 5m
Manetho (Jerome)16 years
Highest attestationYear 17

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht mery Aten  The Dual King Nefer kheperu Ra, wa en Ra  Son of Ra Akh en Aten

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht qa shuty
kꜢ-nḫt ḳꜢi-šwti
The strong bull, high of plumes
E1:D44-q-A28-S9
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 110i
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:H1
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Aten
kꜢ-nḫt mri-itn
The strong bull, beloved of Aten
E1:D40-(i-t:n:ra):N37
After name change
Davis, The rock tombs of Amarna, VI, plate XXXII
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 107d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:H2
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Aten
kꜢ-nḫt mri-itn
The strong bull, beloved of Aten
E1:D40-i-t:n:ra-mr-i-i
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 91a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:H3
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Aten
kꜢ-nḫt mri-itn
The strong bull, beloved of Aten
E1:D40-i-t:n:ra-N37
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 107d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:H3
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Aten
kꜢ-nḫt mri-itn
Beloved of Aten
E1:D40-i-t:n:ra-mr
After name change
d'Avennes, Monuments (1847), pl. 13
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:H2

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wer nesyt em Ipet-sut
wr-nsyt-m-ipt-swt
Great of kingship in Karnak
wr:r-sw*t:n-i-i-m-i-p:t-st-t:Z2
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 110i
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:N1
Nebty name variant
Wer nesyt em Akh et Aten
wr-nsyt-m-Ꜣḫtitn
Great of kingship in Akhetaten
wr:r-sw-t-i-i-Aa15:N27:t*pr-i-t:n:ra
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 105c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:N2

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Wetjes khau em Iunu shemau
wṯs-ḫꜤw-m-iwnw-šmꜤi
Elevated of appearances in southern Heliopolis (Thebes)
U39-M40-xa:Z2-m-iwn-nw:O49-M27
Before name change
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 1963
Gebel el-Silsila rock inscription
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 110i
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Wetjes ren en Aten
wṯz-rn-n-itn
Who has elevated the name of Aten
U39-r:n:V10:n-i-t:n:ra
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 105c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Nefer kheperu Ra, wa en Ra
nfr-ḫprw-rꜤ wꜤ-n-rꜤ
The beautiful one of the manifestations of Ra, the unique one of Ra
C2A-nfr-xpr-Z2*ra:T21:n
Before name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 110d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:T2
Throne name variant
Nefer kheperu Ra, wa en Ra
nfr-ḫprw-rꜤ wꜤ-n-rꜤ
The beautiful one of the manifestations of Ra, the unique one of Ra
ra-nfr-xpr-ra*Z2:T21:n
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 105c, 107d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:T3

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Amenhotep, netjer heqa Waset
imn-ḥtp nṯr ḥḳꜢ wꜢst
Amenhotep, God and ruler of Thebes
i-mn:n:Htp-nTr-HqA-R19
Before name change
Legrain, "Les steles d'Amenothes IV". ASAE 3. 260
Birth name variant
Amenhotep, netjer heqa Waset aa em ahauef
imn-ḥtp nṯr ḥḳꜢ wꜢst ꜤꜢ-m-ꜤḥꜤw.f
Amenhotep, the god and ruler of Thebes, great in respect of his lifetime
i-mn:n:Htp-nTr-HqA-R19-O29v-P6-f
Before name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 110d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:E1
Birth name variant
Akh en Aten
Ꜣḫ-n-itn
Living spirit of the Aten
i-t:n:ra-Ax&x:n
After name change
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 103
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10:E4

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Jerome Chenchres 16 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 343–361
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 142–143
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 104–105
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 13–18
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