Neferneferuaten in hieroglyphs

The eleventh pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Nefertiti, Meritaten

Neferneferuaten was a female pharaoh who most likely was Akhenatens wife Nefertiti, but it is also possible that she was their daughter Meritaten, the wife of Smenkhkara. The throne name Ankhkheperura was used by both Neferneferuaten and Smenkhkara, which has led to a great deal of confusion as throne names tended to be unique.
It is now widely accepted that when Ankhkheperura include an epiteth, it belongs to Neferneferuaten, and where no epiteth is included, it belongs to Smekhkara. It is even possible that both names refer to only one pharaoh.

Manetho mentions Akencheres, a daughter of the king that ruled for 12 years toward the end of the dynasty, according to Josephus.

Precedessor
Amenhotep IV

Successor
Smenkhkara

Reign of Neferneferuaten
AE Chronology1334–?
Dodson1346–1343
Manetho (Josephus)12y 1m
Manetho (Africanus)12 years
Manetho (Eusebius)12 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Ankhet kheperu Ra, meryt wa en Ra
Ꜥnḫt-ḫprw-rꜤ mri-wꜤ-n-rꜤ
The (very) life of the manifestations of Ra, beloved of Waenra
ra-anx:t-xpr:Z2-N36:t*ra-wa:n
Scarab seal
Petrie, Tell el Amarna, plate XV (94)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 142-143, 10bis:T
Throne name variant
Ankh kheperu Ra, mery nefer kheperu Ra
Ꜥnḫ-ḫprw-rꜤ mri nfr-ḫprw-rꜤ
The (very) life of the manifestations of Ra, beloved of Neferkheperura
ra-anx-xpr-Z2:N37-ra-nfr-xpr
Carter, no. 1k, wooden box from Tutankhamun's tomb (JE 61500a-b)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 144-145, 11:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Nefer neferu Aten, akhet en hyes
nfr-nfrw-itn Ꜣḫt-n-h(i).s
Perfect is the perfection of Aten, effective for her husband
i-t:n:ra-nfr-nfr-nfr-nfr-t&G25&t-n:O4:z
Gabolde, D’Akhenaton à Tout-ânkhamon, fig. 9 and 10
Birth name variant
Nefer neferu Aten, mery wa en Ra
nfr-nfrw-itn mri-wꜤ-n-rꜤ
Perfect is the perfection of Aten, beloved of Waenra
i-t:n:ra-nfr-nfr-nfr-nfr-N37:ra-wa:n
Carter, no. 1k, wooden box from Tutankhamun's tomb (JE 61500a-b)

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 13 Aχερρης Acherres 12 years
Eusebius xviii, 9 Aχενχερσης Achencherses 12 years
Jerome Achencheres 12 years
Josephus 96 Aκεγχερης Acencheres ♀ 12 years, 1 month

Bibliography

  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 142–143
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 105
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 273–275
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