Netjerikara in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty, a.k.a. Netjerikare, Nitocris

The Turin papyrus (5.7) holds the throne name Netiqerti, which has long been thought to belong to queen Nitocris who is mentioned by Herodotus in a story where she takes revenge on the people that murdered her brother, an unnamed king. Manetho places Nitocris in the sixth dynasty, as the builder of Menkaura's pyramid at Giza, which shows the limits of relying too blindly on his writings.

The Turin papyrus also hold the birth name Siptah (son of Ptah), which indicates that the name is maculine, but the name Netiqerti is clearly feminine, which muddles the gender identification. It is however likely that a corruption in the records of the throne name Netjerikara ocurred, during the centuries leading to the New Kingdom. Netjerikara is present on the Abydos king list (40) directly following Nemtiemsaf II, but absent from the other New Kingdom king lists.

Precedessor
Nemtiemsaf II

Successor
Menkara

Reign of Netjerikara
v. Beckerath2193–2191
Shaw2184–2181
Allen2152–2150
Malek2141–2140
Redford2205–2200
Turin King List...
Manetho (Africanus)12 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Throne name

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Netjeri ka Ra*
nṯri-kꜢ-rꜤ
The divine one of the ka of Ra
ra-nTr-kA
Abydos Canon no. 40

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 66-67, 1:T

Throne + Birth name

Combination of Throne- and Birth-name cartouches
probably only used for a special occasion.

Throne + Birth name
Net iqerti sa Ptah*
nit-iḳr-ti zꜢ-ptḥ
Neith is excellent, born of Ptah?
n:t*Z5-i-q:r-t:y-G7-G7-zA-Z1-p:t-H
Nitiqerty is most likely a corruption of Netjerikara.
ZÄS , 127, 92-93

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus vi, 6 Νιτωκρις Nitocris 12 years
Eusebius vi Νιτωκρις Nitocris
Herodotus 100.2 Νιτωκρις Nitocris
Eratosthenes 22 Νιτωκρις Nitocris 6

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 177–178, 180
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 64–65
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 43–44
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 279–280
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