Psamtik II in hieroglyphs

The fourth pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, a.k.a. Psammetichus II

Precedessor
Necho II

Successor
Apries

Reign of Psamtik II
595–589
Dodson595–589
Manetho (Africanus)6 years
Manetho (Eusebius)17 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Menekh ib  The Dual King Nefer ib Ra  Son of Ra Psemtek

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Menekh ib
mnḫ-ib
Splendid of mind
mn:x*ib
Young, Hieroglyphics (1828), II, pl. 63
ASAE , 11, 192
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:H1

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
User a
wsr-Ꜥ
Strong-armed
wsr-s-r:a
Daressy, Quelques inscriptions provenant de Bubastis, ASAE 11 (1911): 192
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:N1
Nebty name variant
User a
wsr-Ꜥ
Strong-armed
wsr*s-r:D339:Z1:a
Young, Hieroglyphics (1828), II, pl. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:N2

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Senefer tawy
snfr-tꜢwi
Who has made the Two Lands perfect
s-nfr-N17:N17:N21*N21
Young, Hieroglyphics (1828), II, pl. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:G2

Throne name

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Nefer ib Ra
nfr-ib-rꜤ
The perfect one is the (very) mind of Ra
ra-nfr-ib
Young, Hieroglyphics (1828), II, pl. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:T1

Birth name

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Psemtek
psmtk
Psamtik
p-s-m-T:k
Young, Hieroglyphics (1828), II, pl. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 216-217, 3:E1

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxvi, 6 Ψαμμουθις Psammuthis 6 years
Eusebius xxvi, 7 Ψαμμουθις Psammuthis II 17 years
Jerome Psammites also called Psammeticus 12 years
Herodotus 159.3 Ψαμμι Psammis 6 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 92–104
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 216–217
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 165–166
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