The Sixteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Dates: 1649-1580 BC.
Capital: Thebes

The Sixteenth Dynasty only ruled over Upper Egypt. According to Africanus, 32 Grecian shepherds ruled for 518 years, while Eusebius writes that five kings of Thebes ruled for 190 years. The true number was probably only around 50 years. The dynasty was destroyed in the war against the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty, when Thebes was conquered.

The Sixteenth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
2 Djehuty Sekhemra Sementawy 1649–1648
3 Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemre Seusertawy Sobekhotep 1645–1629
4 Neferhotep III Sekhemra Sankhtawy 1629
5 Mentuhotepi Sankhenra Sankhenre Mentuhotepi, Mentuhotep VII 1628–1627
6 Nebirau I Sewadjenra Nebiryraw I, Sewadjenre 1627–1601
7 Nebirau II Nebiryraw II 1601
8 Semenenra 1601–1600
9 Bebiankh Seuserenra Sewoserenre, Seuserenre 1600–1588
10 Sekhemra Shedwaset 1588
11 Dedumose I Djedhotepra Djedhotepre
12 Dedumose II Djedneferra Djedneferre
13 Mentuemsaf Djedankhra Djedankhre
14 Mentuhotep VI Merankhra Merankhre
15 Senusret IV Seneferibra Seneferibre

Unplaced kings

#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
Pepi III Seneferankhra Seneferankhre
Nebmaatra Nebmaatre
Meribra Meribre
Nubankhra Nubankhre
Nikara II
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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