Herodotus of Halicarnassus

Herodotus traveled Asia and northern Africa, his second volume of Histories describes Egypt's geography, people and relates stories about a number of pharaohs.
Herodotus was born about 490 BC in Halicarnassos and died in Italy in the late 420's. While many of his stories might only be myths, they contains many names of the pharaohs. As a chronology it is almost worthless. For instance, he placed the pyramid builders of the Old Kingdom after the New Kingdom. Some of the named pharaohs are clearly compounded from more than one pharaoh. The end result is, in most cases, unreliable and hold very little historic credibility. Many of the known names of the pharaohs trace their origin to Herodotus.

After Mina came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men.

Herodotus, book II, chapter 100.1
ChapterAncient GreekTransliterationPharaoh
2.99.2 Μινα Mina Narmer
2.100.2 Νιτωκρις Nitokris Netjerikara
2.101.1 Μοιριος Moerius Amenemhat III
2.102.1 Σεσωστρις Sesostris Senusret III
2.111.1 Φερων Pheron ?
2.112.1 Πρωτεα Proteus ?
2.121.1 Pαμψινιτον Rhampsinitos Ramesses III
2.124 Χεοπα Kheops Khufu
2.127 Χεφρηνα Khephren Khafra
2.129 Μυκερινον Mycerinus Menkaura
2.136.1 Aσυχιν Asukhis ?
2.137 Aνυσιν Anusis ?
2.137 Σαβακων Sabakon Shabaka
2.140.2 Aμυρταιου Amurtaiou Amyrtaeus
2.141.1 Σεθων Sethos Shebitko
2.151.2 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetikhos Psamtik I
2.152.1 Νεκων Necon Necho I
2.158.1 Νεκως Necos Necho II
2.159.3 Ψαμμι Psammi Psamtik II
2.161 Aπριης Apries Apries
2.172 Aμασις Amasis Amasis


  • Herodotus, The Histories, Book II
  • Herodotus, The Histories. Translated by A. D. Godley, Harvard University Press. 1920.
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Dynasty – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek dynasteia (δυναστεια)

OK – Old Kingdom

MK – Middle Kingdom

NK – New Kingdom

SIP – Second Intermediate Period

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