Titus Flavius Josephus (37 – c. 100) was a first century Jewish historian who wrote Against Apion (Contra Apionem), which is a polemical work written as a defense of Judaism, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.
As Josephus himself notes, it does not contain quotations from Manetho's original, but rather cites from one or perhaps even two epitomized and altered version of Manetho's Aegyptiaca. Written as a narrative, it covers only a portion of Manetho's history, roughly from the Fifteenth through the Nineteenth dynasties, but it does describe shifts in control from one faction to another, consistent with dynastic divisions. There is no mention of numbered dynasties, and only 24 rulers are named.

The original Greek manuscript is lost, and is only preserved in a single imperfect copy: Codex Laurentianus LXIX.22, a copy from the 11th century, from which all other existing manuscripts are descended.

The pharaohs are mentioned in book 1, at 1.14 to 1.16 (§§ 77 — 97) and the New Kingdom kings are listed without any sort of narrative and no mention of a dynastic break:

93 At the moment, I am presenting the Egyptians as witnesses to antiquity; so, I shall resume citing sections from Manetho as they relate to the sequence of time.

94 He says the following: After the shepherd people left Egypt for Jerusalem, Tethmosis, the king who expelled them from Egypt, subsequently reigned for 25 years and 4 months, and died; and his son, Chebron, inherited his rule, for 13 years.

95 After him, Amenophis for 20 years and 7 months, and his sister Amesses for 21 years and 9 months, and her son Mephres for 12 years and 9 months, and his son Mephramouthosis for 25 years and 10 months.

96 And his son, Thmosis for 9 years and 8 months, and his son Amenophis for 30 years and 10 months, and his son Oros for 36 years and 5 months, and his daughter Akencheres for 12 years and 1 month, and her brother Rathotis for 9 years.

97 And his son, Kencheres for 12 years and 5 months, and his son Akencheres for 12 years and 3 months, and his son Harmais for 4 years and 1 month, and his son Ramesses for 1 year and 4 months, and his son Harmesses Miamoun for 66 years and 2 months, and his son Amenophis for 19 years and 6 months

Here is this list (with additional kings) in table form:
§Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
77 Σαλιτις Salitis Salitis 13 years Salitis
80 Βηων Beon Beon 44 years Beon
80 Aπαχνας Apakhnas Apachnas 36 years, 7 months Apachnas
80 Aπωφις Apophis Apophis 61 years Apepi
81 Iαννας Iannas Jannas 50 years, 1 month Khyan
81 Aσσις Assis Assis 49 years, 2 months Khamudy
94 Τεθμωσις Tethmosis Tethmosis 25 years, 4 months Ahmose I
95 Χεβρων Khebron Chebron 13 years Thutmose II
95 Aμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 20 years, 7 months Amenhotep I
95 Aμεσσης Amesses ♀ Amesses ♀ 21 years, 9 months Hatshepsut
95 Μηφρης Mephres Mephres 12 years, 9 months Thutmose I
96 Μηφραμουθωσις Mephramouthosis Mephramuthosis 25 years, 10 months Thutmose III
96 Θμωσις Thmosis Thmosis 9 years, 8 months Thutmose IV
96 Aμένωφις Amenophis Amenophis 30 years, 10 months Amenhotep II
96 Ωρος Oros Orus 36 years, 5 months Amenhotep III
96 Aκεγχερης Akenkheres ♀ Acencheres ♀ 12 years, 1 month Neferneferuaten
96 Pαθωτις Rhathotis Rathotis 9 years Tutankhamun
97 Aκεγχηρης Akenkheres Acencheres 12 years, 5 months ?
97 Aκεγχηρης Akenkheres Acencheres 12 years, 3 months ?
97 Aρμαις Armais Armais 4 years, 1 month Horemheb
97 Pαμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 1 year, 4 months Ramesses I
97 Aρμεσσης Μιαμουν Armesses Miamun Armesses Miamun 66 years, 2 months Ramesses II
97 Aμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 19 years, 6 months ?
97 Σεθως Sethos Sethus 59 years Seti I


  • MSS: L Codex Laurentianus LXIX.22, in Florence, Bibl. Mediceo-Laurentiana
  • Waddell, W. G. Manetho, Appendix II, pp. 76-89; 100-107, (Cambridge, Mass. 1940)
  • B. Niese: Flavii Josephi opera (Berlin: 1885-1895)
  • Thackeray: Josephus with an english translation, Vol. 1, pp. 191-205 (London, New York: 1926)
  • Barclay, John M. G. Against Apion (vol. 10 of Flavius Josephus: translantion and commentary; ed. Steven Mason; Leiden: Brill, 2007)
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Dynasty – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek dynasteia (δυναστεια)

OK – Old Kingdom

MK – Middle Kingdom

NK – New Kingdom

SIP – Second Intermediate Period

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