Titus Flavius Josephus

Josephus (37 – c. 100) was a first century Jewish historian who wrote Against Apion (Contra Apionem), which is a polemical work written as a defense of Judaism, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks. As Josephus himself notes, it does not contain quotations from Manetho's original, but rather cites from one or two epitomized and altered version of Manetho's Aegyptiaca. Written as a narrative, it covers only a portion of Manetho's history, roughly from the Fifteenth through the Nineteenth dynasties, but it does describe shifts in control from one faction to another, consistent with dynastic divisions. There is no mention of numbered dynasties, and only 24 rulers are named.

The original Greek manuscript is lost, and is only preserved in a single imperfect copy: Codex Laurentianus LXIX, 22, a copy from the 11th century, from which all other existing manuscripts are descended.

The pharaohs are mentioned in book 1, at 1.14 to 1.16 (§§ 77 — 97).

After the departure of the pastoral people from Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmosis, the king who expelled them from Egypt, reigned 25 years and 4 months, and on his death the kingdom passed to his son Chebron, who reigned 13 years. After him Amenophis reigned 20 years and 7 months; then his sister Amesses 21 years and 9 months; her son Mephres 12 years and 9 months; then from father to son Mephramuthosis 25 years and 10 months, Thmosis 9 years and 8 months, Amenophis 30 years and 10 months, Orus 36 years and 5 months; his daughter Akencheres 12 years and 1 month; her brother Rathotis 9 years; then from father to son Akencheres 12 years and 5 months, Akencheres II 12 years and 3 months, Harmais 4 years and 1 month... Josephus, "Contra Apion", § 94-97 (Translation by Thackeray)


§Ancient GreekTransliterationTranscriptionReignPharaoh
77 Σαλιτις Salitis Salitis 13 years Salitis
80 Βηων Beon Beon 44 years Beon
80 Aπαχνας Apakhnas Apachnas 36 years, 7 months Apachnas
80 Aπωφις Apophis Apophis 61 years Apepi
81 Iαννας Iannas Jannas 50 years, 1 month Khyan
81 Aσσις Assis Assis 49 years, 2 months Khamudy
94 Τεθμωσις Tethmosis Tethmosis 25 years, 4 months Ahmose I
95 Χεβρων Khebron Chebron 13 years Thutmose II
95 Aμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 20 years, 7 months Amenhotep I
95 Aμεσσης Amesses ♀ Amesses ♀ 21 years, 9 months Hatshepsut
95 Μηφρης Mephres Mephres 12 years, 9 months Thutmose I
96 Μηφραμουθωσις Mephramouthosis Mephramuthosis 25 years, 10 months Thutmose III
96 Θμωσις Thmosis Thmosis 9 years, 8 months Thutmose IV
96 Aμένωφις Amenophis Amenophis 30 years, 10 months Amenhotep II
96 Ωρος Oros Orus 36 years, 5 months Amenhotep III
96 Aκεγχερης Akenkheres ♀ Acencheres ♀ 12 years, 1 month Neferneferuaten
96 Pαθωτις Rhathotis Rathotis 9 years Tutankhamun
97 Aκεγχηρης Akenkheres Acencheres 12 years, 5 months ?
97 Aκεγχηρης Akenkheres Acencheres 12 years, 3 months ?
97 Aρμαις Armais Armais 4 years, 1 month Horemheb
97 Pαμεσσης Rhamesses Ramesses 1 year, 4 months Ramesses I
97 Aρμεσσης Μιαμουν Armesses Miamun Armesses Miamun 66 years, 2 months Ramesses II
97 Aμενωφις Amenophis Amenophis 19 years, 6 months ?
97 Σεθως Sethos Sethus 59 years Seti I


Bibliography


  • MSS: L Codex Laurentianus LXIX, 22, in Florence, Bibl. Mediceo-Laurentiana
  • Waddell, W. G. 1940 Manetho, Appendix II, pp. 76-89; 100-107, (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • B. Niese: Flavii Josephi opera (Berlin: 1885-1895)
  • Thackeray: Josephus with an english translation, Vol. 1, pp. 191-205 (London, New York: 1926)


 

With 2335 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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