Khafra

Also known as: Khafre, Chephren, Khefren
Dynasty IV

Khafra was a son of Khufu and succeeded his brother Radjedef. It is possible that his name actually was Rakhaf, using the same pattern as his brother, with Ra at the beginning of the name rather than at the end as is the norm used in Egyptology. Rakhaf translates to "Ra is his (very) appearance", which actually makes sense, so it is not unreasonable to assume its possibility. Herodotus and Diodorus transcribed his name as Khephren, which suggests that Khafra would fit as the source. Manetho named him Souphis.

He is of course known as the builder of the second largest pyramid at Giza, but little else is known about him.

Reign of Khafra
AE Chronology2472–2448
von Beckerath2547–2521
Shaw2558–2532
Dodson2437–2414
Allen2520–2494
Malek2518–2493
Arnold2512–2477
Redford2576–2551
Turin Canon... years
Manetho (Africanus)66 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Khafra: User ib
User ib
 wsr-ib
 Strong-minded
wsr-ib
Borchardt, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, 17
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 4:H
Nebty name
Nebty name of Khafra: User em
User em
 wsr-m
 Who is strong by means of the Two Ladies
wsr-m
Borchardt, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, 16
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 4:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Khafra: Sekhem bik nebu
Sekhem bik nebu
 sḫm-bik-nbw
 The golden falcon is powerful
S42*G7:S12
Statue of Chephren, Cairo Museum JE 10062 (CG 14)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography, III, 21
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 4:G
Throne name
Throne name of Khafra: Khaf Ra
Khaf Ra
 ḫꜤ-f-rꜤ
 He appears (as) Ra
ra-N25-f
Passim
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 41a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54-55, 4:E1

Variants

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 3 Σoυφις Souphis Suphis 66 years
Herodotus 127 Χεφρηνα Khephren Chephren
Diodorus 1.64.1 Κεφρην Kephren Cephren 56 years
Eratosthenes 16 Σαωφις β Saophis II Saophis II 27 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 54–55
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 169–171
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 86–94
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 36

 

 



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