Dynasty IV

According to the archaeological record. Shepseskaf was the last pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. The Turin papyrus and the Saqqara king list is damaged where the last rulers of the dynasty would be placed, and to make matters worse, they detail a different number of pharaohs between Khafra and Userkaf, the first ruler of the fifth dynasty.
According to Africanus, Sebercheres was the seventh of eight kings in Manetho's fourth dynasty.

Reign of Shepseskaf
AE Chronology2441–2436
von Beckerath2486–2479
Turin Canon4 years
Manetho (Africanus)7 years


The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Shepseskaf: Shepses khet
Shepses khet
The noble one of the (divine) Corporation
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I 160
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:H
Nebty name
Nebty name of Shepseskaf: Shepses
The noble one (by means) of the Two Ladies
Hassan, Excavations at Giza, III, 176-180
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:N
Throne name
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Shepses kaf
Shepses kaf
His ka is noble
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I, 166
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 41a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Shepses kaf*
Shepses kaf*
His soul is noble
Abydos king list 25
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E3
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Nesut bity Shepses kaf
Nesut bity Shepses kaf
nswt-biti šps-s-kꜢ.f
The Dual King, his ka is noble
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I 160
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 4.15
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:15

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

Africanus iv, 7 Σεβερχερης Seberkheres Sebercheres 7 years


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 54–55
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 425–426
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 101–103
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 37


End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Ancient historians

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