Shepseskaf

 Dynasty IV

According to the archaeological record. Shepseskaf was the last pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. The Turin papyrus and the Saqqara king list is damaged where the last rulers of the dynasty would be placed, and to make matters worse, they detail a different number of pharaohs between Khafra and Userkaf, the first ruler of the fifth dynasty.
According to Africanus, Sebercheres was the seventh of eight kings in Manetho's fourth dynasty.

Reign of Shepseskaf
AE Chronology2441–2436
von Beckerath2486–2479
Shaw2503–2498
Dodson2396–2392
Allen2472–2467
Malek2460–2456
Arnold2454–2450
Redford2523–2519
Turin Canon4 years
Manetho (Africanus)7 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Shepseskaf: Shepses khet
Shepses khet
šps-ẖt
The noble one of the (divine) Corporation
Sps-Xt
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I 160
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:H
Nebty name
Nebty name of Shepseskaf: Shepses
Shepses
šps
The noble one (by means) of the Two Ladies
Sps
Hassan, Excavations at Giza, III, 176-180
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:N
Throne name
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Shepses kaf
Shepses kaf
šps-s-kꜢ-f
His ka is noble
Sps-s-s-kA:f
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I, 166
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 41a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Shepses kaf*
Shepses kaf*
šps-s-kꜢ-f
His soul is noble
A51-z:z-kA:f
Abydos king list 25
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E3
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Nesut bity Shepses kaf
Nesut bity Shepses kaf
nswt-biti šps-s-kꜢ.f
The Dual King, his ka is noble
sw:t-bit:t-Sps-s-s-kA:f
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, I 160
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 54–55, 7:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Shepseskaf: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 4.15
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:15

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 7 Σεβερχερης Seberkheres Sebercheres 7 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 54–55
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 425–426
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 101–103
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 37

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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