Tutankhamun

Also known as: Tutankhamon, King Tut, Tutankhamen, Tutankhaton Dynasty XVIII

In Amarna letter EA 9, the king of Babylon wrote to the pharaoh of Egypt. The name transliterates to Ni-ib-hu-ur-re-re-ia, which transcribes to Nib-khurre-reya, which probably is the Akkadian cuneiform rendition of Neb-kheperu-ra. This is still debated among Egyptologists, and could instead belong to his father, Akhenaten. However, Akkadian nib only transcribes Egyptian neb and never nefer, which means it can't belong to Akhenaten, whose throne name begins with Nefer-. The content of EA 9 itself fits better with Akhenaten though, so the identity can't be said to be final for sure.

Reign of Tutankhamun
AE Chronology?–1324
von Beckerath1335–1325
Shaw1336–1327
Dodson1343–1333
Malek1336–1327
Arnold1348–1338
Grimal1336–1327
Redford1355–1346
Manetho (Josephus)9 years
Manetho (Africanus)6 years
Manetho (Jerome)9 years
Highest attestationYear 10

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-t-w&t-ms-s-w-t:Z2
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2056
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-t-w&t-A23-ms-s-W-A17-t:Z2
Restoration stele, CG 34183
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2025
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:H2
Horus name variant
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-t&w&t-ms-t-s
Ornamental gilt and inlaid casket (JE 61476), Carter No. 44
Horus name variant
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-t&w&t-ms-z:t*Z2
Tutankhamun's small chair, (JE 62029, Carter No. 87)
Horus name variant
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-t&w&t-ms-t&w&Z2
Tutankhamun's alabaster Wishing Cup (JE 62125, Carter No. 14)
Horus name variant
Horus name of Tutankhamun: Ka nakht tut mesut
Ka nakht tut mesut
kꜢ-nḫt twt-mswt
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
E1:D40-A23-ms-Z3
Karnak Open Air Museum stone blocks
Nebty name
Nebty name of Tutankhamun: Nefer hepu segereh tawy
Nefer hepu segereh tawy
nfr-hpw sgrḥ-tꜢwi
One of perfect laws, who pacifies the Two Lands
nfr-h:p-w-iz-Z3-s-g:r-H-a:N17:N17-N21:N21
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2054
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:N1
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Tutankhamun: Nefer hepu segereh tawy, sehotep netjeru nebu
Nefer hepu segereh tawy, sehotep netjeru nebu
nfr-hpw sgrḥ-tꜢwi sḥtp-nṯrw-nbw
One of perfect laws, who pacifies the Two Lands and satisfied the gods
nfr-h:p-w-Z3-s-g:r-H-a:N17:N17-s-Htp:t*p-nTrw:nb-w
Petrie, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob, plate 24 (12)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:N3
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Tutankhamun: Wer ah Amun
Wer ah Amun
wr-Ꜥḥ-imn
Great of the palace of Amun
wr:r-aH-pr:Z1-i-mn:n
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2033
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:N2
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Tutankhamun: Wetjes khau sehotep netjeru
Wetjes khau sehotep netjeru
wṯs-ḫꜤw sḥtp-nṯrw
Elevated of appearances who satisfied the gods
U39-xa:Z2-s-Htp:t*p-nTrw
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2054
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Tutankhamun: Wetjes khau sehotep netjeru
Wetjes khau sehotep netjeru
wṯz-ḫꜤw sḥtp-nṯrw
Elevated of appearances who satisfied the gods
U39-xa:Z2-z:Htp:t*p-nTrw
Restoration stele, CG 34183
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2056
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:G2
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Tutankhamun: Wetjes khau itef Ra
Wetjes khau itef Ra
wṯz ḫꜤw-it.f-rꜤ
Who has elevated the appearances of his father Ra
w-T:z-U39-xa:Z2-i-t:f-A40:f-A40E
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2044
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:G3
Throne name
Throne name of Tutankhamun: Neb kheperu Ra
Neb kheperu Ra
nb-ḫprw-rꜤ
Lord of the forms of Ra
ra-xpr-Z2:nb
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2043
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 115,118; III, 119b, Text 79
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Tutankhamun: Neb kheperu Ra
Neb kheperu Ra
nb-ḫprw-rꜤ
Lord of the forms of Ra
ra:nb-xpr-Z2
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2058
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:T2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Tutankhamun: Neb kheperu Ra, heqa Maat
Neb kheperu Ra, heqa Maat
nb-ḫprw-rꜤ ḥḳꜢ-mꜢꜤt
Lord of the forms of Ra, ruler of Maat
ra:nb-xpr-Z3-HqA-Sw
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2057
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:T3
Birth name
Birth name of Tutankhamun: Tut ankh Amun
Tut ankh Amun
twt-Ꜥnḫ-imn
The living image of Amun
i-mn:n-t&w&t-anx
Statue of Tutankhamun CG 42091 (JE 36583)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:E3
Birth name variant
Birth name of Tutankhamun: Tut ankh Amun heqa Iunu shemai
Tut ankh Amun heqa Iunu shemai
twt-Ꜥnḫ-imn ḥḳꜢ-iwnw-šmꜤi
The living image of Amun, ruler of southern Heliopolis
i-mn:n-t&w&t-anx-HqA-iwn-Sma
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 115+119b; Text III, 79
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:E2
Birth name variant
Birth name of Tutankhamun: Tut ankh Aton
Tut ankh Aton
twt-Ꜥnḫ-itn
The living image of Aton
i-t:n:ra-t&w&t-anx-n:x
Name at birth, changed to Tutankhamun after Amarna period
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 2056
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 144-145, 12:E1

The complete titulary

Sources containing all five names of the royal titulary

Backside of small cedar-wood chair

JE 62029. Tomb of Tutankhamun. Burton photos 152–153 (Carter No. 087).

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 11 Ραθως Rhathos Rathos 6 years
Eusebius xviii, 10 Aθωρις Athoris Athoris 39 years
Jerome Achoris 9 years
Josephus 96 Pαθωτις Rhathotis Rathotis 9 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 144–145
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 479–481
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 365–373
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 106
Rainey, A. F. (2015). "The El–Amarna Correspondence". Vol. 1. 92–93, 1336
Miller. J. L. (2007). "Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of Nibhururiya in the Light of a Newly Reconstructed Hittite Text." Altorientalische Forschungen 34, 252–293

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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