Amenhotep I in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Amenophis I

Despite his nebty name "He who inspires great fear," Amenhotep I seems to have enjoyed a peaceful and prosperous reign. He embarked on a number of building projects, but most were later dismantled by his successors and used as filling for their own projects. In anticipation of celebrating his Sed festival after at the usual 30 year of reign, he had structures built at Karnak, but was not to be used or completed.

Precedessor
Ahmose I

Successor
Thutmose I

Reign of Amenhotep I
AE Chronology1514–1494
v. Beckerath1525–1504
Shaw1525–1504
Dodson1524–1503
Arnold1525–1504
Malek1525–1504
Grimal1526–1506
Redford1545–1525
Manetho (Josephus)20y 7m
Manetho (Africanus)24 years
Manetho (Eusebius)21 years
Manetho (Jerome)21 years
Highest attestationYear 21

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Kau waf tau  The Dual King Djoser ka Ra  Son of Ra Amenhotep

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Kau waf tau
kꜢ-wꜤf-tꜢw
Bull who subdues the lands
E1-w-a:f-N17:N17:N17
Limestone statue, British Museum, EA 683
Naville, The XIth dynasty temple at Deir el-Bahari, I, p.60
Doorway to the Chapel of Amenhotep I (Karnak Open Air Museum)
Legrain, Second rapport sur les travaux exécutés à Karnak, ASAE 4 (1903): 15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:H1
Horus name variant
Waf tawy
wꜤf-tꜢwi
He who subdues the lands
w-a:f-N16:N16:N16
Clepsydra incription (now lost) from Theban Tomb C2
Borchardt, Geschichte der altägyptischen Zeitmesser, plate 18 (5)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:H2

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Aa neru
ꜤꜢ-nrw
He who inspires great fear
aA:n:r-H4-w
Legrain, Second rapport sur les travaux exécutés à Karnak, ASAE 4 (1903): 15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:N
Nebty name variant
null
ꜤꜢ-nrw
He who inspires great fear
aA:H4*Z2
Doorway to the Chapel of Amenhotep I (Karnak Open Air Museum)

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Wah renput
wꜢḥ-rnpwt
Enduring of years
V29-M4-M4-M4
Gauthier, Livre des Rois d'Égypte , II, 200 (XIV)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:G
Golden Horus name variant
Wah renput
wꜢḥ-rnp
Enduring of years
V29-M4
Doorway to the Chapel of Amenhotep I (Karnak Open Air Museum)

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Djoser ka Ra
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Holy is the soul of Ra
ra-Dsr-kA
Abydos Canon no. 67
Saqqara Canon no. 11
Legrain, Second rapport sur les travaux exécutés à Karnak, ASAE 4 (1903): 15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:T1
Throne name variant
Djoser ka Ra
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Holy is the soul of Ra
N5-D45-D28-Z1
Ebers, Papyros Ebers I, p. 37
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 44:5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:T2
Throne name variant
Djoser ka Ra
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Holy is the soul of Ra
ra-D45:r-kA
Clepsydra inscription, Theban Tomb C2. Fragment Berlin ÄM 14470
Borchardt, Geschichte der altägyptischen Zeitmesser, 60-63, Pl. 18
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , I, 457

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Amenhotep
imn-ḥtp
Amun is satisfied
i-mn:n-Htp:t*p
Legrain, Second rapport sur les travaux exécutés à Karnak, ASAE 4 (1903): 16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:E1
Birth name variant
Amenhotep*
imn-ḥtpw
Amun is satisfied
i-mn:n-Htp:t*p-W-G7
Ostracon CG 25234
Cerny, BIFAO 27. 183–184
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , VI, 370
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:E3
Birth name variant
Amenhotep heqa Waset
imn-ḥtp ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
Amun is satisfied, ruler of Thebes
i-mn:n:Htp-HqA-R19
Spielberg, Die ägyptische Sammlung des Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum im Haag, plate 2a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 2:E2

Throne + Birth name

Combination of Throne- and Birth-name cartouches
probably only used for a special occasion.

Throne + Birth name
Djoser ka Ra Amenhotep
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ imn-ḥtp
Holy is the soul of Ra, Amun is satisfied
ra:D45-kA-i-mn:n:Htp

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 3 Αμενωφθις Amenophthis 24 years
Eusebius xviii, 3 Aμμενωφίς Ammenophis 21 years
Jerome Amenophis 21 years
Josephus 95 Aμενωφις Amenophis 20 years, 7 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 197–212
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 132–133
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 96
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 36–39
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