Nectanebo II in hieroglyphs

The third pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty, a.k.a. Nectanebos

Precedessor
Djedhor Teos I

Successor
Artaxerxes III

Reign of Nectanebo II
AE Chronology360–343
v. Beckerath360–342
Shaw360–343
Dodson360–342
Redford360–343
Manetho (Africanus)18 years
Manetho (Eusebius)8 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Mery tawy  The Dual King Senedjem ib Ra, setep en Amun  Son of Ra Nakht Hor Hebit

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Mery tawy
mri-tꜢwi
Beloved of the Two Lands
mr:N17:N17
Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara 1907-1908, III, pl. 52
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 287d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:H1
Horus name variant
Mery tawy mek Kemet
mri-tꜢwi mk-kmt
Beloved of the Two Lands and guardian of Egypt
U7:N17:N17-G20-k:km:t*O49
Offering table from Abu Roash (Cairo Museum CG 23115, JE 30581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:H3
Horus name variant
Mery tawy mek Kemet
mri-tꜢwi mk-kmt
Beloved of the Two Lands and guardian of Egypt
-N36:N17:N17-Aa15:a:k-km:O49
Lefebvre, Égypte gréco-romaine, IV, ASAE 13 (1914): 222
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:H4

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Seheru ib netjeru
shrw-ib-nṯrw
The one who has pleased the heart of Gods
s-h:r-ib:1-nTrw
Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara 1907-1908, III, pl. 52
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:N1
Nebty name variant
Seheru ib netjeru
shrw-ib-nṯrw
The one who has pleased the Gods' heart
z:h:r-ib:1-nTrw
Naville, The Mound of the Jew (1890), plate 2a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:N2
Nebty name variant
Seher ib netjeru teken khasut
shrw-ib-nṯrw tkn-ḫꜢswt
The one who has pleased the gods' minds by attacking the foreign lands
s-h:r-ib:1-R8-Z3-t:k:n-D54-N25:t:Z2
Offering table from Abu Roash (Cairo Museum CG 23115, JE 30581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Semen hepu
smn-hpw
The creator of laws
s-mn:n-U32-h:p-w-Y1v-Z3
Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara 1907-1908, III, pl. 52
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Semen hepu
smn-hpw
The creator of laws
z:mn:n-h:p*W
Davies, The Temple of Hibis, III, plate 68
Golden Horus name variant
Semen hepu hui pedjut 9
smn-hpw ḥri-pḏt-9
The establisher of laws, who has struck down the Nine Bows
s-mn:n-h*p:Y1:Z2-H-A24-pD:Z2-Z2:Z2
Offering table from Abu Roash (Cairo Museum CG 23115, JE 30581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Senedjem ib Ra, setep en Amun
snḏm-ib-rꜤ stp.n-imn
Pleasing to the Heart is Ra, chosen of Amun
C2-C12-s-H-ib:Z1-stp:n-jmn
Lefebvre, Égypte gréco-romaine, IV, ASAE 13 (1914): 222
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:T1
Throne name variant
Senedjem ib Ra, setep en Hathor
snḏm-ib-rꜤ stp.n-ḥtḥr
Pleasing to the Heart is Ra, chosen of Hathor
C2A\-C9-s-nDm-ib:Z1-stp:n
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 287b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Nakht Hor Hebit
nḫt-ḥr-ḥbyt
The strong one of Horus of Hebit
D40-G5&O49-W4
Daressy, Notes et remarques, RecTrav 16 (1894): 126
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:E1
Birth name variant
Nakht Hor Hebit, mery Inher
nḫt-ḥr-ḥbyt mri-inḥr
The strong one of Horus of Hebit, beloved of Anhur
G5&1-n:D40-W4A-C95-N36
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 43a (column 3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:E2
Birth name variant
Nakht Hor Hebit mery en Hor, si Hathor
nḫt-ḥr-ḥbyt mri-inḥr zꜢ-ḥtḥr
The strong one of Horus of Hebit, beloved by Horus, son of Hathor
C9\-C95A-H8:N36:D40-G5&W4-t:O49
Lefebvre, Égypte gréco-romaine, IV, ASAE 13 (1914): 222
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:E4
Birth name variant
Nakht Hor Hebit sa mery Hathor
nḫt-ḥr-ḥbyt zꜢ-mri-ḥtḥr
The strong one of Horus of Hebit, beloved son of Hathor
H8-C9-mr-D40-G5&W4-t:O49
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 287b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:E5
Birth name variant
Nakht Hor Hebit, mery Inher, si Bastet
nḫt-ḥr-ḥbyt mri-inḥr zꜢ-bꜢstt
The strong one of Horus of Hebit, beloved of Anhur, son of Bastet
C164\-H8-C95A-N36:D40-G5&W4
Naville, Bubastis (1891), pl. 47H
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 228-229, 3:E7

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxx, 3 Νεκτανεβος Nectanebus 18 years
Eusebius xxx, 3 Νεκτανεβος Nektanebus 8 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 171–181
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 228–229
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 172–173
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