Amenhotep III

Also known as: Amenophis III
Dynasty XVIII

The reign of Amenhotep III was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. In an Amarna letter from the King of Mittanni, his name is written as Nimmureya, which is the Akkadian rendition of Amenhotep III's throne name Nebmaatra. He is known as Amenophis III from the Greek historians of antiquity.

More than 250 statues of him has been discovered and identified and provide a series of portraits spanning his entire reign. There is no conclusive evidence for a co-regency with his son Akhenaten, as has been suggested many times. Amenhotep III built a mortuary temple at Karnak, where the Colossi of Memnon still stands, but had it built too close to the Nile, so already 200 years later it was a ruin.

Reign of Amenhotep III
AE Chronology1390–1353
von Beckerath1392–1354
Shaw1390–1352
Dodson1388–1348
Malek1391–1353
Arnold1391–1353
Grimal1390–1352
Redford1410–1372
Manetho (Josephus)36y 5m
Manetho (Africanus)37 years
Manetho (Eusebius)36 years
Manetho (Jerome)38 years
Highest attestationYear 38

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Amenhotep III: Ka nakht kha em Maat
Ka nakht kha em Maat
 kꜢ-nḫt-ḫꜤ-m-mꜢꜤt
 The strong bull, appearing in truth
E1:D40-xa-m-H6
Description de l'Egypte, II, plates 20-22 (Memnon statues)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 80a
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 140-141, 9:H1b

Variants

Nebty name
Nebty name of Amenhotep III: Semen hepu segereh tawy
Semen hepu segereh tawy
 smn-hpw sgrḥ-tꜢwi
 Who has established laws and pacified the Two Lands
s-mn:n:Y1-h:p-w&3-s-g:r-H-a:Y1:N17:N17
St. Petersburg sphinx A
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums, IV, 1747 (A)

Variants

Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Amenhotep III: Aa khepesh hui setjetiu
Aa khepesh hui setjetiu
 ꜤꜢ-ḫpš-hwi-sṯtiw
 Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics
aA:xpS:D40-H-A24-S22:t-A&Z2
Konosso Island
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 82a

Variants

Throne name
Throne name of Amenhotep III: Neb Maat Ra
Neb Maat Ra
 nb-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
 The possessor of the Maat of Ra
ra:nb-mAat
Passim
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 140-141, 9:T1

Variants

Birth name
Birth name of Amenhotep III: Amenhotep, heqa Waset
Amenhotep, heqa Waset
 imn-ḥtp ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
 Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes
i-mn:n:Htp-HqA-R19
Passim
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 70-90
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 142-143, 9:E1

Variants

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 9 Ωρος Oros Orus 37 years
Eusebius xviii, 8 Ωρος Oros Orus 36 years
Jerome Orus 38 years
Josephus 96 Ωρος Oros Orus 36 years, 5 months

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 140–143
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 44–49
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 306–342
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 102–104

 

 



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With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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