Mentuhotep II

Also known as: Montuhotep II Dynasty XI

Mentuhotep II reigned for 51 years, but after 14 years of peace and prosperity, the Heracleopolitan tenth dynasty desecrated the Abydos necropolis, effectively starting a war with the pharaoh of Thebes. During the next twenty years the conflict raged on, neither side winning outright. Sometime during this time, Mentuhotep changed his names, perhaps to reflect the ambition to reunite the Two Lands. After finally accomplishing the defeat of the Heracleopolitans, the Two Lands were once again united under a pharaoh, and once again, his names were changed to reflect this.

Reign of Mentuhotep II
AE Chronology2009–1959
von Beckerath2046–1995
Shaw2055–2004
Dodson2066–2014
Malek2050–1999
Grimal2061–2009
Franke2008–1957
Redford2061–2000
Turin Canon51 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Mentuhotep II: Sankh ib tawy
Sankh ib tawy
s-Ꜥnḫ-ib-tꜢwi
The one who invigorates the heart of the Two lands
s-anx-ib:N19
First part of reign
British Museum, stela EA1203
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §23.3
Hieroglyphic Texts in the British Museum, I, plate 53
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Mentuhotep II: Netjer hedjet
Netjer hedjet
nṯr-hḏt
The divine one of the white crown
nTr-S2
Second part of reign
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 150b
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:H3
Horus name variant
Horus name of Mentuhotep II: Sema tawy
Sema tawy
smꜢ-tꜢwi
The uniter of the Two Lands
zmA-N19
Third part of reign
British Museum EA753
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §27.1
Hieroglyphic Texts in the British Museum, VI, plate 23 (2)
Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Égyptiens, plate VII. Louvre Stele C14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:H5
Nebty name
Nebty name of Mentuhotep II: Netjer hedjet
Netjer hedjet
nṯr-hḏt
The divine one of the White Crown
nTr-S2
Second part of reign
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 150b
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:N1
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Mentuhotep II: Sema tawy
Sema tawy
smꜢ-tꜢwi
The uniter of the Two Lands
zmA-N19
Third part of reign
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §27.1
Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Égyptiens, plate VII. Louvre Stele C14
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:N3
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Mentuhotep II: Bik nebu qa shuty
Bik nebu qa shuty
bik-nbw ḳꜢ-šwti
Lofty of plumes
q*G5:nbw-Sw-Sw
Third part of reign
Naville, The XIth dynasty temple at Deir el-Bahari, II, plate X (F)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:G2
Throne name
Throne name of Mentuhotep II: Neb hapet Ra
Neb hapet Ra
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
The possessor of the rudder of Ra
ra:nb-P8
Abydos king list 57
Karnak king list 29
Third part of reign
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:T4
Throne name variant
Throne name of Mentuhotep II: Neb hapet Ra*
Neb hapet Ra*
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
The possessor of the rudder of Ra
ra-P8-nb
Saqqara king list 13
Third part of reign
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:T5
Throne name variant
Throne name of Mentuhotep II: Neb hapet Ra
Neb hapet Ra
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
The possessor of the rudder of Ra
ra:nb-Aa5A\:t
Second part of reign
Naville, The XIth dynasty temple at Deir El-Bahari, II, plate XVIII A
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Mentuhotep II: Neb hapet Ra*
Neb hapet Ra*
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
The possessor of the rudder of Ra
ra:nb-P8-G7
Royal Canon of Turin 6.16
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), V:16
Third part of reign
Birth name
Birth name of Mentuhotep II: Mentuhotep
Mentuhotep
mnṯw-ḥtp
Montu is satisfied
mn:n:T-w-Htp:t*p
First part of reign
British Museum, stela EA1203
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §23.3
Hieroglyphic Texts in the British Museum, I, plate 53
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:E1 (1)
Birth name variant
Birth name of Mentuhotep II: Mentuhotep
Mentuhotep
mnṯw-ḥtp
Montu is satisfied
mn:n:T-w-Htp:t*p
Third part of reign
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 149b
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:E3
Birth name variant
Birth name of Mentuhotep II: Sa Ra, Mentuhotep
Sa Ra, Mentuhotep
zꜢ-rꜤ-mnṯw-ḥtp
Mentuhotep, son of Ra
zA&ra-mn:n:T-w-Htp:t*p
Second part of reign
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §26, Stele Louvre C 252
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:E1 (2)
Throne + Birth name
Throne + Birth name of Mentuhotep II: Neb hapet Ra, sa Ra, Mentuhotep
Neb hapet Ra, sa Ra, Mentuhotep
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ zꜢ-rꜤ-mnṯw-ḥtp
The possessor of the rudder of Ra, son of Ra, Mentuhotep
ra-nb:Aa5-zA&ra-mn:T-w-Htp:t*p
Second part of reign
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 78-79, 5:T+E

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 78–79
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 223–227
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 228–237
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 55

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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