Also known as: Menes
Dynasty I

King Menes is credited with uniting the Two Lands and was thus the first pharaoh of the Kingdom of Egypt according to New Kingdom king lists. They name Meni as the first king, and drawing from the same sources, Africanus and Eusebius name him Menes, while Herodotus calls him Min. This conforms well with the name Menes.
There is no contemporary archaeological evidence containing the cartouche name of Menes, as the use of cartouches did not begin until the time of the Old Kingdom.
In the king lists of the New Kingdom, the nebty names were placed into cartouches because the scribes were unable to recognize or locate the corresponding names from the ancient sources. Fittingly, Meni means : He who endures.

The contemporary Horus name of the first king, Narmer, is well attested. It is firmly established that he indeed was the first ruler of the kingdom. The early kings were only known by their Horus name, and there is no evidence that Narmer used any other.

Reign of Narmer
AE Chronologyc. 2900
Manetho (Africanus)62 years
Manetho (Eusebius)30 years


The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Narmer: Narmer
 Fierce catfish of Horus
Narmer Palette (JE32169)
Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, plate II (3)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 36-37, x+4:H1


Nebty name
Nebty name of Narmer: Men
Ivory label with king Aha attending a funerary ritual for the deceased Menes
Cairo Museum JE 31773 (CG 14142)
Garstang, (1905). "The tablet of Mena" in ZÄS , 42, 61-64
Edwards, Cambridge Ancient History, 11
Throne name
Throne name of Narmer: Meni*
 He who endures
Abydos king list 1
Mariette, Abydos, I, plate 43 (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 1:E1


The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

Africanus i, 1 Μηνης Menes Minis 62 years
Eusebius i, 1 Μηνης Menes Menes 30 years
Herodotus 99.2 Μινα Mina Mina
Diodorus 1.45.1/3 Μηναν / Μηνα Menan / Mena Menan / Mena
Eratosthenes 1 Μηνης Menes Menes 62 years


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 36–37
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 237–240
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 1–3; 17–19
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 22



With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
© 2011-2020 by Peter Lundström — All Rights Reserved — V.2019-07-08
Disclaimer: The content should be accurate, but errors and omissions are possible. All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources.