Narmer

Also known as: Menes Dynasty I

King Menes is credited with uniting the Two Lands and was thus the first pharaoh of the Kingdom of Egypt according to New Kingdom king lists. They name Meni as the first king, and drawing from the same sources, Africanus and Eusebius name him Menes, while Herodotus calls him Min. This conforms well with the name Menes.
There is no contemporary archaeological evidence containing the cartouche name of Menes, as the use of cartouches did not begin until the time of the Old Kingdom.
In the king lists of the New Kingdom, the nebty names were placed into cartouches because the scribes were unable to recognize or locate the corresponding names from the ancient sources. Fittingly, Meni means : He who endures.

The contemporary Horus name of the first king, Narmer, is well attested. It is firmly established that he indeed was the first ruler of the kingdom. The early kings were only known by their Horus name, and there is no evidence that Narmer used any other.

Reign of Narmer
AE Chronologyc. 2900
Grimal3150–3125
Manetho (Africanus)62 years
Manetho (Eusebius)30 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Narmer: Narmer
Narmer
nꜤr-mr
Fierce catfish of Horus
K24-U23
Narmer Palette (JE32169)
Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, plate II (3)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 36-37, x+4:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Narmer: Narmer Tjaj
Narmer Tjaj
nꜤr-mr-ṯꜢi
Manly catfish of Horus
K24-U23-G47
Petrie, Tarkhan, I, plate II (2)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 36-37, x+4:H4
Horus name variant
Horus name of Narmer: Nar
Nar
nꜤr
Catfish of Horus
K24
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo , 38, fig. 14-15, #40
Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, plate XIII (91,92)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 36-37, x+4:H3
Nebty name
Nebty name of Narmer: Men
Men
mn
mn
Ivory label with king Aha attending a funerary ritual for the deceased Menes
Cairo Museum JE 31773 (CG 14142)
Garstang, (1905). "The tablet of Mena" in ZÄS , 42, 61-64
Edwards, Cambridge Ancient History, 11
Throne name
Throne name of Narmer: Meni*
Meni*
mni
He who endures
mn:n-i
Abydos king list 1
Mariette, Abydos, I, plate 43 (1)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 1:E1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Narmer: Meni*
Meni*
mni
He who endures
mn:n-i-A1
Royal Canon of Turin 3.10
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), II:10
Throne name variant
Throne name of Narmer: Meni*
Meni*
mni
He who endures
mn:n-i-y-G7
Royal Canon of Turin 3.11
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), II:11
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 1:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Narmer: Meni*
Meni*
mny
He who endures
mn:n-ii
Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, Vol IV, plate 213
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), III, 163

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus i, 1 Μηνης Menes Minis 62 years
Eusebius i, 1 Μηνης Menes Menes 30 years
Herodotus 99.2 Μινα Mina Mina
Diodorus 1.45.1/3 Μηναν / Μηνα Menan / Mena Menan / Mena
Eratosthenes 1 Μηνης Menes Menes 62 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 36–37
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 237–240
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 1–3; 17–19
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 22

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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