Userkaf

 Dynasty V

As the first ruler of the fifth dynasty, Userkaf imitated or honored Djoser by using the same name for his Horus and Nebty names instead of two different ones. He likely married into the extended royal family of the fourth dynasty to gain the throne. His hellenized name by Manetho is Ouserkheres, and his name is present on the New Kingdom king lists of Abydos, Saqqara and Turin.
According to a story in the Westcar papyrus, he was the first of three brothers that ruled in succession, but that story has since been disproved.

Reign of Userkaf
AE Chronology2435–2429
von Beckerath2479–2471
Shaw2494–2487
Dodson2392–2385
Allen2465–2458
Malek2454–2447
Redford2513–2506
Turin Canon7 years
Manetho (Africanus)28 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Userkaf: Iri Maat
Iri Maat
iri-mꜢꜤt
The one who has accomplished Maat
ir:mA*(mAa:t)
Mariette, Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie, II, plate 54e
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 56–57, 1:H
Nebty name
Nebty name of Userkaf: Iri Maat
Iri Maat
iri-mꜢꜤt
The one who has accomplished Maat (for the Two Ladies)
ir:mA*(mAa:t)
Papyrus Berlin 20397
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 56–57, 1:N
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Userkaf: Bik nebu nefer
Bik nebu nefer
bik-nbw-nfr
The perfect golden falcon
nfr*G7:nbw
Kaplony, Rollsiegel des Alten Reiches, II, plate 55
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 56–57, 1:G
Throne name
Throne name of Userkaf: User kaf
User kaf
wsr-kꜢ-f
His ka is strong
wsr-s-kA-f
Abydos king list 26
Saqqara king list 34
Mariette, Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie, II, plate 54e
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 56–57, 1:E2
Throne name variant
Throne name of Userkaf: User kaf
User kaf
wsr-kꜢ-f
His ka is strong
w-wsr-s-kA:f
Tomb of Kameni (LG 96)
Petrie, Abydos, II, plate XIV
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 40
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 56–57, 1:E1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Userkaf: ..ka
..ka
..kꜢ
//-kA-Z1-G7
Royal Canon of Turin 4.17
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), III:17

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus v, 1 Ουσερχερης Ouserkheres Usercheres 28 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 56–57
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 484–486
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 105–108
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 38

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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