The Late Period

The Late Period refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers, into Persian and Greek conquests, and ended with Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC.


Dynasty XXVI

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Necho I Nekao I
2 Psamtik I Psammetichus I
3 Necho II Nekao II
4 Psamtik II Psammetichus II
5 Apries Hophra
6 Amasis Ahmose II, Ahmose III
7 Psamtik III Psammecherites, Psammetichus III

Dynasty XXVII

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Cambyses II 525–522
2 Darius I 522–486
3 Xerxes I 486–465
4 Artaxerxes I 465–424
5 Darius II 424–405
6 Artaxerxes II 405–404

Dynasty XXVIII

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Amyrtaeus 404–399

Dynasty XXIX

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Neferites I 398–393
2 Akoris 393–380
3 Psammuthis 393
4 Neferites II 380
5 Muthis

Dynasty XXX

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Nectanebo I 380–362
2 Djedhor Teos I 362–360
3 Nectanebo II 360–343

Dynasty XXXI

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Artaxerxes III 343–338
2 Arses 338–336
3 Darius III 336–332

Argead Dynasty

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Alexander the Great 332–323
2 Philip III Arrhidaeus 323–317
3 Alexander IV Aegus 317–309

Ptolemaic Dynasty

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Ptolemy I Ptolemaios Soter 305–285
2 Ptolemy II Ptolemaios Philadelphos 288–246
3 Ptolemy III Ptolemaios Euergetes 246–222
4 Ptolemy IV Ptolemaios Philopator 222–204
5 Ptolemy V Ptolemaios Epiphanes 204–180
6 Ptolemy VI Ptolemaios Philometor 180–145
7 Ptolemy VII Ptolemaios Neos Philopator 145
8 Ptolemy VIII Ptolemaios Euergetes Physcon 169–164,
144–132,
126–116
9 Ptolemy IX Ptolemaios Soter Lathyrus 116–110,
109–107,
88–81
10 Ptolemy X Ptolemaios Alexander 110–109,
107–88
11 Ptolemy XI Ptolemaios Alexander II 80
12 Ptolemy XII Ptolemaios Neos Dionysus Auletes 80–58
13 Ptolemy XIII Ptolemaios Philopator II 51–47
14 Ptolemy XIV Ptolemaios Philopator Philadelphus 47–44
15 Cleopatra VII Kleopatra 51–30
16 Ptolemy XV Ptolemaios Philopator Philometor Caesarion 44–30



End of page
Kinglists
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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