Turin king list: Column 11

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Column
An estimated 31 rows

An estimated thirty-one rows with the names of the kings of the successive Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties based at Thebes, explaining the lack of a heading following the summation in 11.15. The lower section is almost entirely missing, with only four partial names remaining, making any identification speculative and precarious.

Table 1: Overview of column 11
RowsRemarksKings
1–14Sixteenth Dynasty (continued)14
15Summation for Sixteenth Dynasty
16–17Seventeenth Dynasty2
18–24Lacuna (Seventeenth Dynasty)7
25–31Seventeenth Dynasty7
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 11.1
the Turin king list 11.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemra ... reigned 3 years ...
nsw-bit sḫm-...-rꜤ rnpt 3 ...

KingDjehuty (194th king)DynastyXVI (2)
GardinerXI 1Fragment126 + 125
The identity of the first three kings is open to interpretation, as only the Sekhemra part of their names are preserved. All three are attested exclusively near Thebes which is compatible with a date in the Sixteenth Dynasty, however their order is tenative.1
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 8sḫm-rꜤ smn-tꜢwySekhemra Sementawy
1.   Ryholt 1997: 152ff.
Column 11.2
the Turin king list 11.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemra ... 16 years ...
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ-... rnpt 16 ...

KingSobekhotep VIII (195th king)DynastyXVI (3)
GardinerXI 2Fragment126 + 125
The identity of the first three kings is open to interpretation, as only the Sekhemra part of their names are preserved. All three are attested exclusively near Thebes which is compatible with a date in the Sixteenth Dynasty, however their order is tenative.1
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 43sḫm-rꜤ-s.wsr-tꜢwySekhemra Seusertawy
1.   Ryholt 1997: 152ff.
Column 11.3
the Turin king list 11.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemra S... 1 year ...
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ s-... rnpt 1 ...

KingNeferhotep III (196th king)DynastyXVI (4)
GardinerXI 3Fragment126 + 127
The identity of the first three kings is open to interpretation, as only the Sekhemra part of their names are preserved. All three are attested exclusively near Thebes which is compatible with a date in the Sixteenth Dynasty, however their order is tenative.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 152ff.
Column 11.4
the Turin king list 11.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Se...en...ra ... 1 year ...
nsw-bit s-...-n-rꜤ-... rnpt 1 ...

KingMentuhotepi (197th king)DynastyXVI (5)
GardinerXI 4Fragment126 + 125
It is clear that the sign appearing to be a second s is likely an Ꜥnḫ with missing strokes.1 As Gardiner himself noted, his reading of wꜢḏ is unlikely,2 and it is unlikely that two successive kings shared the same prenomen (Sewadjenra).
1.   Ryholt 1997: 154
2.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (XI 4 a); compare Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, Nos. 534, 432, and 280
Column 11.5
the Turin king list 11.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebiriawra reigned 26 years ...
nsw-bit nb-iry-Ꜣw-rꜤ rnpt 26 ...

KingNebirau I (198th king)DynastyXVI (6)
GardinerXI 5Fragment126 + 125
Written mostly on a patch, the ink is much deteriorated, making the reading of many signs difficult. The record of the reign length contains two badly damaged figures, that according to Ryholt can be read as 26.1 The 20 is certain, while the abnormal number following is hard to interpret. Gardiner read it as a 9,2 while Farina saw a 6.3 The slanting stroke of a 9 would overlap with the 20, a 6 is therefore the most likely reading of the two.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 38s.wꜢḏ-n-rꜤSewadjenra
1.   Ryholt 1997: 158, 153, 162. Note: in the text regarding this king, the reign mentioned is always 29 years, probably just an oversight by the author.
2.   Gardiner 1959: pl. IV
3.   Farina 1938: 58f.
Column 11.6
the Turin king list 11.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Nebitawra ... years ...
nsw-bit nb-it-Ꜣw-rꜤ rnpt ...

KingNebirau II (199th king)DynastyXVI (7)
GardinerXI 6Fragment126
The four small traces at the end were not transcribed by Gardiner, but seem form the usual cartouche close, divine-determinative, followed by the regnal year signs.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 158f.
Column 11.7
the Turin king list 11.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Semenra reigned ... years ...
nsw-bit s.mn-rꜤ ... rnpt ...

KingSemenenra (200th king)DynastyXVI (8)
GardinerXI 7Fragment126
The incomplete traces written on a patch are difficult to interpret, as seen by the various reading by the scholars.1 2 3
1.   Ryholt 1997: 153, 158
2.   Gardiner 1959: pl. IV
3.   Farina 1938: 58
Column 11.8
the Turin king list 11.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Seuserenra reigned 12 years, months lost, x days
nsw-bit sw-wsr-n-rꜤ ... rnpt 12 wsf hrw ...

KingBebiankh (201st king)DynastyXVI (9)
GardinerXI 8Fragment126
The lacuna notation indicate that the number of months was lost.1 Some of the signs written on the patch are worn and difficult to interpret.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 12, 202
Column 11.9
the Turin king list 11.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sekhemra Shedwaset, x year(s) ...
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ šd-wꜢs.t rnpt ...

KingSekhemra Shedwaset (202nd king)DynastyXVI (10)
GardinerXI 9Fragment130 + 126
Some of the signs written on the patch are worn but still recognizable.
Column 11.10
the Turin king list 11.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit ...-rꜤ ...

King...ra (203rd king)DynastyXVI (11)
GardinerXI 10Fragment130
Only the opening cartouche and the sun-disc remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.11
the Turin king list 11.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (204th king)DynastyXVI (12)
GardinerXI 11Fragment130
Only a partial title and the opening cartouche remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.12
the Turin king list 11.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit ...-rꜤ ...

King...ra (205th king)DynastyXVI (13)
GardinerXI 12Fragment131
Only the traces of the title and the opening cartouche with a possible sun-disc remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.13
the Turin king list 11.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (206th king)DynastyXVI (14)
GardinerXI 13Fragment131
Only the traces of the title remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.14
the Turin king list 11.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (207th king)DynastyXVI (15)
GardinerXI 14Fragment131 + 142
Only the traces of the title and the opening cartouche remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.15
the Turin king list 11.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.15 (hieroglyphics)

Total: 5 kings ...
dmḏ nsy.wt 5 ...

 Summation 
GardinerXI 15Fragment142
The summation records a total of five kings, but this figure is evidently incorrect since there are 15 preceding rows (10.31 to 11.14), and should be emended '15 kings'.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 151
Column 11.16
the Turin king list 11.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King User..ra ...
nsw-bit wsr-...-rꜤ ...

KingUser...ra (208th king)DynastyUnidentified (1)
GardinerXI 16Fragment142
The name on this line (or 11.17) could belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-rꜤ.
Column 11.17
the Turin king list 11.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King User...
nsw-bit wsr-...

KingUser... (209th king)DynastyUnidentified (2)
GardinerXI 17Fragment142
The name on this line (or 11.16) could possibly belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-rꜤ.
Column 11.18
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.18 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (210th king)DynastyUnidentified (3)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.19
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.19 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (211th king)DynastyUnidentified (4)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.20
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.20 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (212th king)DynastyUnidentified (5)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.21
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.21 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (213th king)DynastyUnidentified (6)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.22
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.22 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (214th king)DynastyUnidentified (7)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.23
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.23 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (215th king)DynastyUnidentified (8)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.24
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 11.24 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (216th king)DynastyUnidentified (9)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 11.25
the Turin king list 11.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (217th king)DynastyUnidentified (10)
Only a tiny trace of the row remain, the name is lost.
Column 11.26
the Turin king list 11.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...hebra ...
nsw-bit ...-hb-rꜤ ...

King...hebra (218th king)DynastyUnidentified (11)
Only the ending of an uncertain name remain.1 This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 165, 203
2.   Ryholt 1997: 379 (File 14/9)
Column 11.27
the Turin king list 11.27 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.27 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.27 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... he acted as king for ... 2 ...
nsw-bit ... ir.n f m nswyt ... 2 ...

KingUnknown (219th king)DynastyUnidentified (12)
There does not seems to be much room for a name ahead of the kingship formula.
Column 11.28
the Turin king list 11.28 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.28 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.28 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 2 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 2 ...

KingUnknown (220th king)DynastyUnidentified (13)
Column 11.29
the Turin king list 11.29 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.29 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.29 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 4 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 4 ...

KingUnknown (221st king)DynastyUnidentified (14)
Column 11.30
the Turin king list 11.30 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.30 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.30 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 3 years ...
nsw-bit ... rnpt 3 ...

KingUnknown (222nd king)DynastyUnidentified (15)
Column 11.31
the Turin king list 11.31 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.31 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 11.31 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...nra ... 3 years ...
nsw-bit ...-n-rꜤ ... rnpt 3 ...

King...enra (223rd king)DynastyUnidentified (16)
The list of kings end here, with traces of the name of an unidentified king.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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